The drive to seek a goal, such as food, water or friends.
A state of the body causing feelings, such as of hope, fear, or love.
part of the lower brain that controls such basic needs and desires as pleasure, pain, fear, rage, huger, thirst, and sex.
brain structure responsible for emotional responses of aggression and fear.
unit in the brain that registers and controls activity level, increases excitement, and helps generate sleep.
Gland that controls other glands and hormones, as well as producing its own hormone that regulates growth.
Glands that secrete adrenaline, which stirs up the body, changing breathing, perspiration, heart rate, and so on.
the sex glands.
the male sex glands; they make sperm.
the female sex glands; they make eggs.
male hormones; they control sexual interest in both males and females.
the hormone that controls the female reproductive cycle.
forces that push an organism into action to reach a goal.
the target of a set of behaviors.
bodily process of maintaining a balanced internal state.
Blood Sugar Level
the amount of sugar contained in the blood, which indicates the level of hunger.
another name for sugar in the blood.
the body-regulating mechanism that determines a person's typical weight.
a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things.
a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment.
motivation that comes from within the individual.
motivation that comes from outside the individual.
the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation.
Hierarchy of Needs
a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with the most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid; proposed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow.
Needs at the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy: hunger and thirst.
needs at the second level of Maslow's hierarchy: shelter, nest egg of money.
needs at the third level of Maslow's hierarchy: friendship, closeness with another.
Self- Esteem Needs
needs at the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy: liking and respecting yourself, feeling important and useful.
Self Actualization Needs
needs at the top of Maslow's hierarchy: establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life.
Needs for Affiliation
Psychological need to belong to and identify with groups.
Need for Approval
Psychological need to have other people think highly of oneself.
Need for Achievement
Psychological need for personal accomplishment.
Opponent Process Theory
theory that the presence of one emotion triggers its opposite, which then emerges somewhat later.
higher-order thought processes, such as reasoning and problem solving.
the ability to properly feel, deal with, and recognize emotions.
James Lange Theory
theory of emotion proposing that first the body responds and then one feels the emotion.
Cannon Bard Theory
theory of emotion proposing that the bodily reaction and the emotional response to an event occur at the same time.
theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter; it hold that people label a bodily response by giving it the name of the emotion they think and feel.