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Psychology and You (third edition)

Motivation

The drive to seek a goal, such as food, water or friends.

Emotion

A state of the body causing feelings, such as of hope, fear, or love.

Hypothalamus

part of the lower brain that controls such basic needs and desires as pleasure, pain, fear, rage, huger, thirst, and sex.

Amygdala

brain structure responsible for emotional responses of aggression and fear.

Reticular Formation

unit in the brain that registers and controls activity level, increases excitement, and helps generate sleep.

Pituitary Gland

Gland that controls other glands and hormones, as well as producing its own hormone that regulates growth.

Adrenal Glands

Glands that secrete adrenaline, which stirs up the body, changing breathing, perspiration, heart rate, and so on.

Gonads

the sex glands.

Testes

the male sex glands; they make sperm.

Ovaries

the female sex glands; they make eggs.

Androgens

male hormones; they control sexual interest in both males and females.

Estrogen

the hormone that controls the female reproductive cycle.

Drives

forces that push an organism into action to reach a goal.

Goal

the target of a set of behaviors.

Homeostasis

bodily process of maintaining a balanced internal state.

Blood Sugar Level

the amount of sugar contained in the blood, which indicates the level of hunger.

Glucose

another name for sugar in the blood.

Set Point

the body-regulating mechanism that determines a person's typical weight.

Curiosity Motive

a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things.

Manipulation Motive

a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment.

Intrinsic Motivation

motivation that comes from within the individual.

Extrinsic Motivation

motivation that comes from outside the individual.

Contact Comfort

the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation.

Hierarchy of Needs

a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with the most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid; proposed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow.

Physiological Needs

Needs at the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy: hunger and thirst.

Safety Needs

needs at the second level of Maslow's hierarchy: shelter, nest egg of money.

Belongingness Needs

needs at the third level of Maslow's hierarchy: friendship, closeness with another.

Self- Esteem Needs

needs at the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy: liking and respecting yourself, feeling important and useful.

Self Actualization Needs

needs at the top of Maslow's hierarchy: establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life.

Needs for Affiliation

Psychological need to belong to and identify with groups.

Need for Approval

Psychological need to have other people think highly of oneself.

Need for Achievement

Psychological need for personal accomplishment.

Opponent Process Theory

theory that the presence of one emotion triggers its opposite, which then emerges somewhat later.

Cognition

higher-order thought processes, such as reasoning and problem solving.

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to properly feel, deal with, and recognize emotions.

James Lange Theory

theory of emotion proposing that first the body responds and then one feels the emotion.

Cannon Bard Theory

theory of emotion proposing that the bodily reaction and the emotional response to an event occur at the same time.

Cognitive Theory

theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter; it hold that people label a bodily response by giving it the name of the emotion they think and feel.

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