Anything that establishes a fact or gives us a reason to believe something.
The process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.
The science of reasoning based on the principles that govern correct or reliable inference.
The use of reason to persuade.
Reasoning that begins with a specific example and moves toward a broader generalization.
Reasoning that begins with a broad generalization and applies it to a specific example.
Every time I kick the ball up it comes back down. I guess that the next time I kick the ball up, it will also come back down.
According to Newton's Law of Gravity, what goes up must come down. Therefore, if I kick the ball up it will come back down.
You flip through three television channels and all you see are commercials. You conclude that all that is on TV is commercials.
A faulty argument that occurs because the sample chosen is too small or in some way not representative of the whole.
In response to asking your mother if she will allow you to stay out late, she replies, "all teenagers are irresponsible. You are a teenager and therefore, you are irresponsible and are not allowed to stay out late."
An error in deductive reasoning that is based on a hasty generalization.
A police officer shows up to the scene of a crime and finds a man holding a gun standing next to a dead body. The police officer arrests the man for murder.
Drawing a conclusion based on the evidence at hand. This logical fallacy only suggests a conclusion, it does not prove one.
A bus passes by the clock tower everyday at 12:00PM. Everyday at 12:00PM the bell at the top of the clock tower rings. The bus passing by the clock tower must trigger the ringing of the bell.
Causal relationships between events mean that one causes the other to occur. Correlation means that there is a relationship between two events, but not necessarily a causal relationship.
You tell your math teacher that you ought to be able to use notes during your test. After all, lawyers don't have to memorize every law and doctors don't have to remember every medical procedure by heart.
An analogy that compares two things that are not really the same. Keep in mind that no two sets of conditions are perfectly alike, and so no analogy is perfect.
Students will devote more time to studying if there is more time for study hall. We should increase the number of study hall periods if we want students to study more.
Begging the Question
Making an argument that assumes whatever you are trying to prove is true. Occurs most often in the form of circular reasoning.
Ignoring the Question
When a speaker attempts to divert the attention of the audience away from the matter at hand.
Playing With Numbers
The manipulation or distortion of statistics to misrepresent facts.
Attacking the person making the argument instead of attacking the argument itself.
Lincoln Douglas Debate
a value oriented- debate activity that emphasizes ethics and philosophy
Public Forum Debate
the debate activity that most resembles real world political debates- resolutions center around domestic or foreign policy of national importance
centers around determining the most desirable policy option for the United States federal government to adopt.
Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially reduce its military and/or police presence in one or more of the following: South Korea, Japan, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Iraq, Turkey.
What is this year's policy debate resolution?