What is metabolism?
Sum of chemical reactions in an organism
What does catabolism do?
Provides energy and building blocks for anabolism
What does anabolism do?
Uses energy to build larger molecules
What is a metabolic pathway?
Sequence of chemical reactions in a cell
What are metabolic pathways determined by?
What is the collision theory?
Chemical reactions occur when molecules collide
What is activation energy?
Energy needed to disrupt electronic configurations
What is reaction rate?
Frequency of collisions to start a reaction
Besides enzymes, how else can reaction rate be increased?
Temperature and pressure
What does oxidoreductase stand for?
What does isomerase do?
Rearrangement of atoms
What is lyase?
Removal of atoms without hydrolysis
What does ligase do? What does it use?
Joining of molecules; uses ATP
What are the four factors that influence enzyme activity?
Temperature, pH, inhibitors, and concentration
What does temperature and pH do to proteins?
What is oxidation?
Removal of electrons
What is reduction?
Gain of electrons
What is a redox reaction?
An oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaction
What are biological oxidations also called?
By what process is ATP created from ADP?
What are the three major steps to breakdown carbohydrates to release energy?
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
What are the two alternatives to Glycolysis?
Pentase phosphate and Entner Doudoroff
What is aerobic respiration?
Final electron acceptor = oxygen
What is anaerobic respiration? Does it yield more or less energy than aerobic respiration?
Final electron acceptor = not oxygen
What are the electron acceptors in Anaerobic Respiration? NSC
NO-3, SO-4, CO2-3
What are enzymes encoded by?
What does a coenzyme do?
Fills in part of the active site in order for different substrates to work
What is the turnover number of enzymatic action? (Per second)
1 to 10,000 molecules per second
What is hydrolase?
What is transferase?
The transfer of functional groups
What does a competitive inhibitor do?
Inhibits substrates from attaching to the enzyme
Competitive inhibition takes a portion of the spot of a substrate how?
By having a similar molecular structure
Where do non-competitive inhibitors attach themselves to?
What is feedback inhibition?
It tells the cell when to stop producing something
What does light cause chlorophyll to give up?
What is the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid that produces ATP and NADH?
What is used in the prepatory stage of Glycolysis?
Glycolysis splits glucose into what?
What is produced from Glycolysis?
4 ATP (2 ATP total after prepatory) and 2 NADH
Which alternative to Glycolysis does not involve Glycolysis?
What two things does the pentose phosphate pathway use?
Pentoses and NADH
What does the Entner Dodouroff pathway produce?
NADPH and ATP
Pyruvic acid (from Glycolysis) is oxidized and deoxycarboxylated in what step?
What does the Krebs Cycle oxidize?
What are the two products of the Krebs Cycle?
NADH and FADH2
In the ETC, energy release can be used to produce ATP by what?
What is carbohydrate catabolism? Using what?
Energy produced from glucose oxidation using aerobic respiration
In carbohydrate catabolism, how many ATPs are produced in eukaryotes?
Alcoholic beverages and acidic dairy products are made by?
Fermentation does not require?
Fermentation does not use? (2 Processes)
Krebs cycle or ETC
What does fermentation use as its final electron acceptor?
An organic molecule
What does alcohol fermentation produce? (2)
Ethanol and CO2
Homolactic acid produces what?
Lactic acid only
What does heterolactic acid produce?
Lactic acid and other compounds
What are biochemical tests used for?
What does carbon fixation do to carbons?
Fixes carbons into organic molecules
Where do chemoheterotrophs get their energy from?
Photoautotrophs use energy in the Calvin Benson cycle to fix what?
What are amphibolic pathways?
Metabolic pathways with both anabolic and catabolic reactions