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The biology of the mind

What is the difference between an axon and a dendrite?

axons send messages and dendrites receive information. Axons speak and dendrites listen

synapse

the meeting point between neurons

The Central Nervous System controls...

brain and spinal cord

When an action potential reaches te axon terminal of a neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called...

neurotransmitters

Sympathetic Nervous System

arouses and expends energy

Parasympathetic Nervous System

conserves energy and calms

autonomic

Self-regulating

The neurons of the spinal cord are part of the...

central nervous system

The Endocrine System controlls what?

hormones

What is the difference between a PET and an fMRI?

PET shows brain activity and fMRI shows structure

The lower brain structure that governs arousal is the

reticular formation

The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the

cerebellum

What part of the limbic system controls eating?

hypothalamus

What controls emotion?

amygdala

What controls memory?

hippocampus

Judging and planning are associated with the

frontal lobes

What connects the two brain hemispheres?

the corpus callosum

Plasticity is especially evident in brains of

young children

The right hemisphere ables the person to

make inferences, orchestrates our sense of self, modulates speech

People's failure to recognize themselves in a mirror is most likely to be associated with damage to the

right cerebral hemisphere

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

seeing; hearing

Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?

thalamus

Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?

reticular formation

The hypothalamus influences the ________ to send messages to the ________.

pituitary; endocrine glands

What does Broca's area control?

speech

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the

autonomic nervous system

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of

touch

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?

hippocampus

The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

frontal

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