Biology- Chapter 7

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Before photosynthesis evolved, ________ was rare in Earth's atmosphere.

A) N2
B) CO2
C) O2
D) H2O
E) air

The products of photosynthesis are:

A) glucose and water.
B) carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
C) glucose and carbon dioxide.
D) carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, and oxygen.
E) glucose and oxygen.

What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air?

A) stomata
B) epidermis
C) cuticle
D) mesophyll
E) chloroplast

The vast majority of chloroplasts found in a leaf are in the:

A) vascular bundles.
B) cuticle.
C) epidermis.
D) stroma.
E) mesophyll.

Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in the membranes of sacs called:

A) stoma.
B) thylakoids.
C) stroma.
D) grana.
E) vesicles.

All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT:

A) light intensity.
B) temperature.
C) atmospheric CO2 levels.
D) water availability.
E) atmospheric N2 levels.

All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT:

A) ATP.
B) NADP.
C) water.
D) oxygen.
E) carbon dioxide.

The cellular organelle that is responsible for photosynthetic activity is the:

A) nucleus.
B) mitochondrion.
C) chloroplast.
D) endoplasmic reticulum.
E) ribosome

Imagine that a scientist discovers a mutant plant seedling that appears to lack stomata. What would be the effect of this?

A) CO2 would not be able to enter the plant as a reactant for photosynthesis.
B) Water would not be able to enter the plant cells.
C) Visible wavelengths of light would be unable to reach the chloroplasts.
D) Additional ATP would be produced by the seedling, and the plant would grow taller.

Imagine that a plant in your garden doesn't receive an adequate amount of water. Which of the following would be most affected by this?

A) the light reactions of photosynthesis only
B) the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis

11) Albino corn has no chlorophyll. You would expect albino corn seedlings to:

A) capture light energy in the white end of the visible light spectrum.
B) fail to thrive because they cannot capture light energy.
C) synthesize glucose indefinitely, using stored ATP and NADPH.
D) switch from the C4 pathway to the CAM pathway.

The energy source in photosynthesis is:

A) glucose.
B) ultraviolet light.
C) visible light.
D) air.
E) oxygen.

Energy is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule called the:

A) reaction center.
B) photoelectric point.
C) electron carrier molecule.

Carotenoid pigments are found in the:

A) mitochondria.
B) stroma of the chloroplasts.
C) thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts.
D) nucleus.

The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are:

A) chlorophyll only.
B) carotenoids only.
C) anthocyanins only.
D) chlorophyll and carotenoids.
E) carotenoids and anthocyanins

A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is

A) phycocyanin.
B) carotenoid.
C) xanthophyll.
D) melanin.
E) chlorophyll.

Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll?

A) It is green in reflected color.
B) It absorbs light at the red and blue ends of the spectrum.
C) It is the main photosynthetic pigment in plants.
D) It is found in mitochondria.
E) It does not absorb green wavelengths of light.

Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting for your indoor green plants. Which of the following colors of light will be most effective?

A) green
B) orange-yellow
C) blue
D) red-green
E) red-blue

Which statement is TRUE regarding the light reactions?

A) They rely on energy provided by glucose synthesis.
B) Oxygen is required.
C) Without water, the system would shut down.
D) ATP and NADPH are needed.
E) Without photosystem I, photosystem II could not occur.

The replacement electrons for the reaction center of photosystem II come from:

A) photosystem I.
B) H2O.
C) glucose.
D) O2.

Which sequence accurately describes the flow of electrons in photosynthesis?

A) photosystem I → photosystem II → H2O → NADP
B) photosystem II → photosystem I → NADP → H2O
C) H2O → photosystem II → photosystem I → NADP
D) photosystem I → photosystem II → NADP → H2O
E) H2O → photosystem I → photosystem II → NADP

The ATP and NADPH synthesized during the light reactions are:

A) dissolved in the cytoplasm.
B) transported to the mitochondria.
C) pumped into a compartment within the thylakoid membrane.
D) transported into the nucleus.
E) dissolved in the stroma

What is produced in the electron transport system associated with photosystem II?

A) NADPH
B) ATP
C) glucose
D) O2
E) CO2

Light reactions produce:

A) ATP, NADPH, and O2.
B) ATP, NADPH, and CO2.
C) glucose, ATP, and O2.
D) glucose, ATP, and CO2.
E) ATP, NADPH, and H2O.

Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?

A) CO2
B) H2O
C) ATP
D) C6H12O6
E) RuBP

During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to:

A) chemical energy.
B) heat energy.
C) thermal energy.
D) mechanical energy.
E) nuclear energy.

The light reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following?

A) oxidation of CO2
B) reduction of H2O
C) synthesis of ADP
D) oxidation of chlorophyll
E) oxidation of glucose

The role of water in photosynthesis is to:

A) maintain turgor pressure.
B) provide electrons.
C) provide oxygen.
D) provide H2.

Which of the following is a source of electrons that green plants use for reduction reactions?

A) glucose
B) CO2
C) RuBP
D) O2
E) H2O

Hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membranes from the stroma by:

A) osmosis.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
D) simple diffusion.
E) synthesis.

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within chloroplasts and mitochondria is used to generate molecules of:

A) H2O.
B) CO2.
C) glucose.
D) ATP.
E) O2.

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane is used to generate:

A) H2O.
B) CO2.
C) glucose.
D) O2.
E) ATP.

Which process of photosynthesis is linked to the production of ATP?

A) photosystem II
B) generation of NADPH
C) splitting of a water molecule
D) fixing of carbon
E) synthesis of O2

Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive?

A) ATP
B) glucose
C) O2 gas
D) NADPH
E) CO2 gas

Which of the following statements is TRUE about the light reactions?

A) NADPH and ATP are both synthesized from the light reactions within photosystem I.
B) Photosystem I generates ATP, while photosystem II generates NADPH.
C) Photosystem II generates ATP, while photosystem I generates NADPH.
D) ATP is the final electron acceptor.

Which of the following statements about the light reactions of photosynthesis is FALSE?

A) The splitting of water molecules provides a source of electrons.
B) Chlorophyll (and other pigments) absorbs light energy, which excites electrons.
C) An electron transport chain is used to create a proton gradient.
D) The proton (H+) gradient is used to reduce NADP.
E) ATP is synthesized.

The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed:

A) by the reduction of oxygen.
B) by the hydrolysis of ATP.
C) during the light reactions.
D) only in C4 plants.
E) in the mitochondria.

The primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is to:

A) produce energy-rich glucose from carbon dioxide and water.
B) produce energy-rich ATP and NADPH.
C) produce NADPH used in respiration.
D) convert light energy to the chemical energy of lipids.
E) use ATP to make glucose.

You are carrying out an experiment on several aquatic plants in your fish tank. You decide to expose two of the plants to green light and two to blue light. You want to determine which type of light is best for the light reactions, so you decide to record the amount of oxygen bubbles produced to reach your conclusions. Which of the following results would be expected?

A) There would be more bubbles from the plants in green light than from those in blue light.
B) There would be more bubbles from the plants in blue light than from those in green light.
C) There would be the same number of bubbles from plants in blue or green light.
D) No bubbles would be produced in either green light or blue light.

Which of the following provides O2 as an end product?

A) light reaction
B) light-independent reaction
C) cellular respiration
D) glycolysis
E) synthesis

Glucose synthesis during photosynthesis requires that:

A) sunlight must be present.
B) the products of energy-capturing reactions must be available.
C) the concentration of O2 must be significantly higher than that of CO2.
D) mitochondria must convert light energy to ATP.

The term "cycle" is used to describe the Calvin cycle because:

A) the same reactions occur every time.
B) CO2 is fixed.
C) the process begins and ends with RuBP.
D) glucose is synthesized during the process.
E) the process depends on products from the light reactions.

Where is glucose synthesized during photosynthesis?

A) thylakoids
B) cytoplasm
C) matrix
D) stroma
E) stoma

What is the correct order for the reactions of the Calvin cycle?

A) carbon fixation, regeneration of RuBP, synthesis of G3P
B) synthesis of G3P, regeneration of RuBP, carbon fixation
C) carbon fixation, synthesis of G3P, regeneration of RuBP
D) regeneration of RuBP, carbon fixation, synthesis of G3P
E) synthesis of G3P, carbon fixation, regeneration of RuBP

Which of the following occurs during the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis?

A) Water is converted to its most basic elements, hydrogen and water.
B) Carbon dioxide is converted to chemicals that can be used to make sugars.
C) Chlorophyll acts as an enzyme, but only in the dark.

All of the following are part of the Calvin cycle EXCEPT:

A) carbon fixation.
B) synthesis of G3P.
C) generation of ATP.
D) regeneration of RuBP.

What happens to CO2 when it moves into the stroma?

A) The CO2 gives up its O2.
B) It immediately passes on to the thylakoids.
C) It becomes a carbohydrate.
D) The CO2 becomes a by-product of cellular respiration.
E) It is converted to water.

) In green plants, the primary function of the Calvin cycle is to:

A) use ATP to release carbon dioxide.
B) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide.
C) split water and release oxygen.
D) transport glucose out of the chloroplast.
E) construct the building blocks of simple sugars from carbon dioxide.

Glucose is made during which of the following reactions?

A) the light reactions only
B) the Calvin cycle only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

During photosynthesis, when is CO2 utilized?

A) during the light reactions only
B) during the Calvin cycle only
C) during both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) during neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

ATP is required during which of the following reactions?

A) the light reactions only
B) the Calvin cycle only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

Enzymes are required during which of the following reactions?

A) the light reactions only
B) the Calvin cycle only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

Water is required to drive which of the following reactions?

A) the light reactions only
B) the Calvin cycle only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

NADPH is synthesized during which of the following reactions?

A) the light reactions only
B) the Calvin cycle only
C) both the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle

In the C3 pathway, where does the carbon come from to form glucose?

A) ATP and NADPH
B) chlorophyll
C) atmospheric CO2
D) enzymes
E) water

In the reduction of CO2 during C4 photosynthesis, which of the following initially combines with CO2?

A) PGA
B) RuBP
C) PGAL
D) NADH
E) PEP

Where do the reactions of a C4 pathway occur in a plant such as corn?

A) mesophyll cells only
B) bundle sheath cells only
C) epidermal cells only
D) mesophyll and bundle sheath cells
E) bundle sheath and epidermal cells

In the C4 pathway, what is the source of carbon?

A) NADPH
B) glucose
C) water
D) carbon dioxide
E) ATP

What kind of habitat does a C4 pathway plant favor?

A) hot and dry
B) cool and moist
C) totally aquatic
D) wet and cloudy

Photorespiration is detrimental for a plant because:

A) O2 is required.
B) CO2 is synthesized.
C) RuBP is degraded.
D) glucose is synthesized.
E) no ATP is produced

Where does the C4 cycle get its name?

A) Only four carbons are used in the cycle.
B) It is a four-step process.
C) Four CO2 molecules are released.
D) The first product in the cycle has four carbons.
E) PEP is a four-carbon molecule.

If C4 photosynthesis prevents photorespiration, why haven't all plants evolved to use the C4 pathway?

A) All plants will evolve to be C4 in time.
B) C4 produces some toxic by-products.
C) C4 is not advantageous in all climates.
D) Only some plants use C4 photosynthesis.
E) C4 is advantageous in only high-oxygen habitats

C3 plants are adapted to ________ environmental conditions, whereas C4 plants are adapted to ________ conditions.

A) dry; wet
B) wet; dry
C) temperate; cool and rainy
D) high-light; low-light
E) drought; rainy

In C3 photosynthesis, what fixes the carbon?

A) RuBP
B) PEP
C) PGA
D) PGAL
E) ATP

In C4 photosynthesis, where does the carbon in newly synthesized glucose come from?

A) ATP and NADPH
B) chlorophyll
C) enzymes
D) water
E) atmospheric CO2

The stacked thylakoids are disk-shaped, interconnected membranous sacs embedded in the stroma. True or False?

FALSE

The majority of the leaf's chloroplasts are found in the mesophyll cells. True or False?

TRUE

The photosystems are involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis. True or False?

TRUE

Carbon dioxide is required in the light reactions of photosynthesis. True or False?

FALSE

The carotenoids and other accessory pigments in the chloroplast help capture light into the reaction center chlorophyll molecules. True or False?

TRUE

Under dry conditions, a C4 plant is more photosynthetically efficient than a C3 plant. True or False?

TRUE

Light reactions occur in the ________, and the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________ of the chloroplast of a typical mesophyll leaf cell.

THYLAKOIDS;STROMA

The cells in the ________ layer of the leaf contain the majority of a leaf's chloroplasts.

MESOPHYLL

The process of photosynthesis converts solar energy to ________ energy stored in the bonds of glucose.

CHEMICAL

Many plants have evolved leaves that have adjustable pores, called ________, which allow for gas exchange and water loss.

STOMATA

________ is the main light-capturing molecule in chloroplasts and is responsible for giving most leaves their characteristic green color.

CHLOROPHYLL

In the process of photosynthesis, ________ and ________ are required from the light reactions to completely reduce carbon dioxide to glucose.

ATP; NADPH

During the light reactions of photosynthesis, the synthesis of ________ is coupled to the diffusion of protons.

ATP

Light-harvesting pigments in the chloroplast include chlorophyll and the accessory pigments called ________.

CAROTENOIDS

A(n) ________ is composed of a light-harvesting complex and an electron transport system.

PHOTOSYSTEM

Photosystem II generates ________, and photosystem I generates ________, both of which are required by the light reactions.

ATP; NADPH

During the Calvin cycle, the combination of oxygen with RuBP rather than carbon dioxide is called ________.

PHOTORESPIRATION

Some plants, called the ________ plants, have evolved a way to reduce photorespiration.

C4

During the process of ________, RuBP combines with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide.

PHOTORESPIRATION

In C3 plants, the Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplasts of ________ cells, but in C4 plants, the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________ cells.

MESOPHYLL, BUNDLE SHEATHS

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