Nutrition Chapter 8 Quiz

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Chapter 8 -Vitamins

Which statement about vitamins is true?
A) Cannot be stored by the body
B) Are inorganic
C) Help regulate chemical reactions in the body
D) Directly supply energy

C) Help regulate chemical reactions in the body

Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?
A) Water-soluble vitamins are stored, whereas fat-soluble vitamins are excreted readily.
B) Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.
C) Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity.
D) Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat.

B) Water-soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
A) a doughnut made with enriched white flour.
B) apple juice.
C) a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
D) a banana.

C) a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.

Megadoses are defined as vitamin intake ________ times the estimated human need to prevent a deficiency.
A) 1 to 3
B) 3 to 5
C) 2 to 10
D) 50

C) 2 to 10

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?
A) They enter the bloodstream directly after absorption.
B) Fat in the digestive contents is not important for their absorption.
C) They are not stored to any great extent.
D) After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

D) After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

Which fat soluble vitamins are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?
A) Vitamins D and K
B) Vitamins A and E
C) Vitamins A and D
D) Vitamins E and K

B) Vitamins A and E

Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?
A) Retinoids are found in plant foods.
B) Carotenoids are found in animal foods.
C) Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.
D) Retinoids are converted to carotenoids.

C) Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.

Which of the following vitamins has been helpful in large doses as a treatment for acne?
A) C
B) D
C) A
D) E

C) A

Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A?
A) Broccoli
B) Pork chop
C) Chicken breast
D) Liver

D) Liver

George wants to increase his consumption of vitamin A for the possible cancer risk-reducing effects. Which of the following foods should he choose?
A) Spinach
B) Salmon
C) Pears
D) Potato

A) Spinach

Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?
A) Retinol
B) Carotenoids
C) Cholesterol
D) Phenylalanine

B) Carotenoids

This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida.
A) Niacin
B) Folate/folic acid
C) Riboflavin
D) B6

B) Folate/folic acid

All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except
A) one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.
B) fetal malformation can occur.
C) one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food.
D) most adverse effects disappear after megadoses stop.

A) one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.

The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
A) vitamin E.
B) vitamin D.
C) vitamin A.
D) niacin.

B) vitamin D.

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
A) it is absorbed and transported via the lymphatic system.
B) absorption requires bile and fat.
C) it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.
D) it can be stored.

C) it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A) vitamin A.
B) riboflavin.
C) vitamin D.
D) niacin

C) vitamin D.

The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is
A) poultry.
B) whole-grain cereals.
C) yellow squash.
D) fortified milk.

D) fortified milk.

Vitamin E functions as a(n)
A) coenzyme.
B) antioxidant.
C) hormone.
D) enzyme.

B) antioxidant.

The main form of vitamin E in the body is
A) alpha-tocopherol.
B) gamma-tocopherol.
C) beta-tocopherol.
D) delta-tocopherol.

A) alpha-tocopherol.

A rich source of vitamin E is
A) an orange.
B) a chicken breast.
C) corn oil.
D) prime rib.

C) corn oil.

The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
A) A.
B) C.
C) K.
D) E.

C) K.

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
A) kidneys.
B) intestine.
C) lungs.
D) liver

A) kidneys.

The B vitamins generally function as
A) antioxidants.
B) coenzymes.
C) emulsifiers.
D) reducing agents.

B) coenzymes.

Some niacin is formed in the body from
A) phenylalanine.
B) tyrosine.
C) tryptophan.
D) lysine.

C) tryptophan.

The vitamin that aids in activating fatty acids so they can yield energy is
A) pantothenic acid.
B) biotin.
C) vitamin B6.
D) thiamin.

A) pantothenic acid

Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.
A) Folate
B) Vitamin B6
C) Pantothenic acid
D) Biotin

D) Biotin

What vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism?
A) Thiamin
B) Pyridoxine
C) Riboflavin
D) Niacin

B) Pyridoxine

Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are
A) folate and thiamin.
B) thiamin and niacin.
C) vitamin B12 and folate.
D) folate and pantothenic acid.

C) vitamin B12 and folate.

Generally, good folate sources are
A) fruits.
B) green leafy vegetables.
C) milk and dairy products.
D) poultry.

B) green leafy vegetables.

The best option in ensuring an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals is
A) a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals.
B) fortified foods.
C) a multivitamin and mineral supplement.
D) individual nutrient supplements.

A) a healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals.

Mature red blood cells

Erythrocytes

Pigment materials in fruits and vegetables that can be turned into vitamin A in the body

Carotenoids

disorder that results from lack of vitamin B12 absorption

Pernicious anemia

Anemia characterized by the presence of abnormally large red blood cells

Macrocytic anemia

Vitamin A deficiency in which the retina cannot adjust to low amounts of light

Night blindness

Skin condition commonly associated with niacin deficiency symptoms

Dermatitis

Destruction of red blood cells

Hemolysis

Disease characterized by poor mineralization of newly synthesized bones due to low calcium content and caused by vitamin D deficiency

Rickets

Disease process due to vitamin A deficiency, which can cause blindness

Xerophthalmia

Adult form of rickets

Osteomalacia

General loss or decrease in mental function

Dementia

Thiamin deficiency disorder characterized by muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration

Beriberi

Protein-like compound produced by the stomach that enhances vitamin B12 absorption

Intrinsic factor

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