Sociology Exam 2

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The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women, or students and teachers, and gives direction and sets limits on behavior are referred to as ________.

social structure

Milo, a highly successful attorney, just received a $200 ticket for speeding. Jim, an unemployed father of six, received a $50 fine for parking in a restricted area. Milo considers his $200 ticket an inconvenience, but Jim sees his $50 fine as a financial disaster. Why do Milo and Jim feel so differently about their fines, even though Milo's is four times greater than Jim's?

Their location in the social structure has created the difference between Milo's and Jim's reactions.

Which statement regarding status is most accurate?

Status provides the guidelines for how we are to act and feel.

Andrea is an aspiring associate editor for a major publisher. She is single, but feels married to her work. Last year, she received a $20,000 bonus for the excellent work she did in promoting new textbooks published by her employer. Based on this information, Andrea's ascribed status is ________ and her achieved status is ________.

female; associate editor

The difference between status and role is that ________.

we occupy a status that is a social position, but we play a role that is a social expectation

The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as ________.

social institutions

As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on skills and interest. This slitting of a group's tasks into specialists is called ________.

division of labor

Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinschaft as ________ solidarity is to Gesellschaft.

organic

The German term for the type of society referred to as the "intimate community" was ________. The term used to describe the type of society characterized by "impersonal association" was ________.

Gemeinschaft; Gesellschaft

An approach to social interaction in which social life is analyzed in terms of the stage is called ________.

dramaturgy

Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

crimes

The concept of the relativity of deviance is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

social control

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?

control theory

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

inner control

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.

labeling

According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

anomie

John desires the best things in life - a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered that he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

an innovator

According to Cloward and Ohlin, what is the underlying cause of deviance and delinquency in unstable slums of a city which have crime woven into the texture of life?

illegitimate opportunity structures

The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

social stratification

A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement, such as slavery, is called ________.

an ideology

In some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and the upper class marry to preserve their power and wealth within their families. This is a practice known as ________.

endogamy

What is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate?

The class system has fluid boundaries.

If a person were living during Karl Marx's lifetime and worked at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would consider that person a member of the ________.

proletariat

Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has experienced ________.

false class consciousness

The sociologist who believed that social class is made up of three components - property, power, and prestige - was ________.

Max Weber

In his book, The Ruling Class, Gaetano Mosca offered three arguments regarding society and power. All of the following represent his arguments EXCEPT for which one?

Man is naturally good.

The spread of an economic system based on investing to make profits, which is becoming the world's dominant economic system, is referred to as ________.

the globalization of capitalism

Some nations have traditionally been in poverty from one generation to the next, relying on tradition rather than experimenting with new technology that might improve their standard of living. This explanation for global stratification is called ________.

culture of poverty

Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?

One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.

What does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?

Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.

What is Durkheim's term for a condition in which people become detached from the norms that guide their behavior?

anomie

What group of Americans does the author characterize as being the "fallout" of the postindustrial economy?

the homeless

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.

exchange

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the most likely cause of John's poverty?

Changes in social structure are the most likely cause.

Intentionally keeping groups of people unemployed during periods of economic recession until they are needed for the next economic boom is a strategy by the government to establish a(n) ________.

reserve labor force

Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.

False

Since 1970, the richest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown richer, and the poorest 20 percent of U.S. families has grown poorer.

True

Status inconsistency is common for winners of multimillion-dollar lotteries, especially when the status of their new wealth exceeds the status of their education and occupation.

True

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