What is anatomy?
The study of body structure and morphology (form)
What is physiology?
The study of body function
What is gross anatomy?
study of body structure that can be seen by the naked eye
What is Surface anatomy?
study of shapes and markings called landmarks on the body which reveal the underlying bones and organs
What is microscopic anatomy?
study of structures so small they can only be seen with microscope
What are the branches of anatomy?
Developmental, embryological, pathological, radiographic, comparative, gross, functional anatomy/morphology
What is the hierarchy of structural organization?
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What is systemic anatomy?
The study of anatomy by systems (ie respiratory system)
What is regional anatomy?
The study of anatomy by regions (ie abdominal cavity)
Protective/external covering; protects internal organs/tissues; synthesizes vitamin D; has cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, temperature, and sweat/oil glands).
Examples of the integument system
Skin, hair, nails
Supports/protects body; provides framework for muscles; formation of blood cells; stores minerals
Locomotion, facial expression, maintains posture, allows interaction with environment
Fast acting control system; responds to internal and external changes
Breaks down food into absorbable units; eliminates indigestible materials
Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries O2, CO2, nutrients, and wastes
Picks ups fluid from leaked from blood vessels; Eliminates debris in lymph system; houses white blood cells; attacks foreign substances
Supplies blood with O2, rids blood of CO2, gas exchange occurs in aveoli of lungs
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes; Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
Glands that secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use
Produce offspring; male testes produce sperm and sex hormones; female ovaries produce egg and sex hormones, mammary glands produce milk
Name the different systems of the body
Nervous, skeletal, reproductive, endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, muscular, digestive, urinary, integument
Main axis of body
Closer to origin of the body part or point of attachment of limb to trunk
Farther from origin of body part or point of attachment of limb to trunk
On the same side
On different sides
Name the different body planes
Coronal (front), Median (midsagittal), Transverse
Characteristics common to all vertebrates
Tube within a tube, segmentation, pharyngeal pouches, bilateral symmetry, dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord and vertebrae
mouth to anus, including respiratory and digestive organs
Axial skeleton and muscles that make outer body wall and nerve structure
Examples of human segmentation
ribs and muscles in between ribs; vertebrae in vertebral column, nerves branching from spinal cord
What are the different body cavities?
Ventral (thoracic: 2 lateral parts with lung surrounded by pleural cavity; mediastinum for heart surrounded by pericardial sac), dorsal (cranial and vertebral), abdominalpelvic cavity (abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity), serous cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum)
What are the nine abdominal regions?
Right hypochondriac, left hypochondriac, epigastric region, right lumbar, left lumbar, umbillical, right illac, left illac, hypogastric region
What are the four abdominal quadrants?
Right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
Types of microscopy
Light (low) and electron (high magnification)
How does one prepare human tissue for microscopy?
Fix (preserve) specimen, and stain it.
Electromagnetic short wave lengths. Bones and abnormal masses
Computed (Axial) topography (CT/CAT) scan
X-ray accross and around full circumference
Digital substraction angioraphy (DSA)
View small arteries
Positron Emission Topography
Forms images by detecting radioactive isotopes injected into body which indicates cellular activity
High frequency sound waves bounce off body tissues
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Quality soft tissue images based on water content