|Explain the four components identified as central to leadership.||*Leadership is a process- this is not done by means of a trait or characteristic that resides in a leader but rather a transactional event that occurs between the leader and the followers|
*Leadership involves influence- how the leader affects followers
*Leadership occurs in groups- influencing a group of others to accomplish common goals
* Leadership includes attention to common goals- the leaders and the followers have a mutual purpose.
|Describe the differences between assigned leadership and emergent leadership.||assigned leadership is the person's formal position in an organization whereas emergent leaders are leaders because of the way other group members respond to them.|
|Explain the five types of power identified by French and Raven.||*Referent Power- Based on followers' identification and liking for the leader. |
*Expert Power- based on followers' perception of the leader's competence
*Legitimate power- associated with having status or formal job authority
*Reward power- Derived from having capacity to provide rewards to others
*Coercive Power- Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others
|Be able to define emotional intelligence.||the ability to perceive and express emotions, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and reason with emotions, and to effectively manage emotions within oneself and in relationships with others.|
|Describe the similarities and differences between leadership and management.||They are different in that management traditionally focuses on the activities of planing, organizing, staffing, and controlling whereas leadership emphasizes the general influence process. The overlap between the two is centered on how they both involve influencing a group of individuals in goal attainment|
|Which traits are cited most often in research results?||Intelligence, integrity, self-confidence, sociability, determination|
|How might the trait approach be used for personal awareness and development?||by analyzing their own traits, managers can gain an idea of their strengths and weaknesses, and can get a fell for how others in the organization see them.|
|What are strengths of the trait approach?||Its intuitively appealing, it is backed by a century of research, it highlights the leader component in the leadership process, it gives us bench marks to look for.|
|What are criticisms of the trait approach?||doesn't limit the possible traits, fails to take situations into account, highly subjective, not useful for training and development for leadership.|
|Explain the difference between a skill and a trait.||for traits we focus on personality characteristics, which are usually viewed as innate and largely fixed, to an emphasis on skills and abilities that can be learned and developed.|
|Explain each of the elements and components of the Mumford Skills Model.||see chart|
|How might the skills approach be used for personal awareness and development?||The skills approach requires leaders to have problem-solving skills, social judgment skills, and knowledge. They can improve their capabilities in these areas through training and experience. In addition, levels of management require different skills. |
-Lower Level: Technical and human skills
-Middle: All three skills
-Upper: Conceptual and human skills.
|What are the strengths of the skills approach?||1) It is a leader-centered model that stresses the importance of developing particular leadership skills. |
2) The skills approach is intuitively appealing (it makes leadership available to everyone).
3) It provides an expansive view of leadership that incorporates a wide variety of components, including problem-solving skills, social judgment skills, knowledge, individual attributes, career experiences, and environmental influences.
4) It provides a structure that is very consistent with the curricula of most leadership education programs.
|What are the criticisms of the skills approach?||1) The breadth of the skills approach seems to extend beyond the boundaries of leadership (addresses more than just leadership). |
2) The skills model is weak in predictive value. It does not explain specifically how variations in social judgment sills and problem-solving skills affect performance.
3) It can be criticized for claiming not to be a trait model when, in fact, a major component in the model includes individual attributes, which are trait like.
4) It may not be suitably or appropriately applied to other contexts of leadership.
|What methods have researchers used to investigate leadership style and how do these research findings differ? What do they have in common?||Ohio State: Had subordinates complete a questionnaire (LBDQ) about their leaders, and determined two general behaviors: initiating structure (task) and consideration (relational).|
Michigan: Gave attention to the impact of leaders' behaviors on the performance of small groups. Identified employee orientation and production orientation.
-Michigan conceptualized employee and production orientations as opposite ends of a single continuum.
-When the two behaviors are treated as independent orientations (like the in the Ohio State study), leaders are seen as able to focus on both orientations at the same time
-Studies were done (50's and 60's) to determine how leaders could best combine their task and relationship behaviors to maximize the impact of these behaviors on the satisfaction and performance of followers.
|What are the characteristics of each of the seven leadership styles shown on the Leadership Grid?||1) Country-Club Management (1,9): Thoughtful attention to the needs of the people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. |
2) Team Management (9,9): Work accomplishment is from committed people. Interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect.
3) Middle of the Road Management (5,5): Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.
4) Impoverished Management (1,1): Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done as appropriate to sustain organization membership.
5) Authority-Compliance Management (9,1): Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a away that human elements interfere to a minimum degree.
|How should leaders attempt to balance their task and relationship behaviors?||In some situations, leaders need to be more task oriented, whereas in others they need to be more relationship oriented. Some subordinates need leaders who provide a lot of direction, whereas others need a great deal of nurturance and support. Leaders need to find the balance by evaluating both the needs of the group members and the needs of thee task.|
|How is an individual's personal interest in tasks and relationships related to how she or he shows task and relationship leadership?||An individual is most likely to use the leadership style that they most take a personal interest in. They may then need to adapt their leadership style to the task's needs and the group's needs.|
|What are strengths of the style approach?||1) The style approach marked a major shift in the general focus of leadership research. It broadened the scope of leadership research to include the behaviors of leaders and what they do in various situations. |
2) A wide range of studies on leadership style validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach.
3) Researchers from the style approach have ascertained that a leader's style consists primarily of two major types of behaviors: task and relationship.
4) The style approach is heuristic, and provides us with a broad conceptual map that is worthwhile to use in our attempts to understand the complexities of leadership.
|What are criticisms of the style approach?||1) The research on styles has not adequately shown how leaders' styles are associated with performance outcomes.|
2) The approach has failed to find a universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation.
3) It implies that the most effective leadership style is the high-high style, while this might not be the case in all situations.
|How do high Machiavellians and low Machiavellians differ in their use of influence tactics?||High Machiavellians are more likely to be flexible in their choice of influence tactics than Low Machiavellians. High's strategically alter their behavior, while lows do not give it as much thoguth.|
|What is the relationship between one's willingness to communicate and one's leadership experience?||If you are willing to communicate you are more likely to advance in your career.|