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Achondroplasia

Disorder of the development of cartilage at the epiphyses of the long bones and skull, resulting in dwarfism.

Muscular dystrophy

Group of disorders characterized as an inherited progressive atrophy of skeletal muscle without neural involvement.

Polydactyly

Condition of more than five fingers or toes on each hand or foot.

Spina bifida occulta

Congenital malformation of the bony spinal canal without involvement of the spinal cord.

Osteomalacia

Softening of bone caused by loss of minerals from the bony matrix as a result of Vitamin D deficiency.

When osteomalacia occurs in childhood, it is called rickets.

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow.

Osteoporosis

Loss of bone mass, which results in the bones being fragile and at risk for fracture.

Arthorsis

Abnormal condition of a joint; may be hemarthrosis, hydrathrosis, or pyarthrosis (blood, fluid, or pus respectively, in a joint cavity.

Bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Compression injury that manifests itself as fluctuating pain, numbness, and paresthesias of the hand caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist.

Osteoarthritis

Joint disease characterized by degenerative articular cartilage and a wearing down of the bones' edges at a joint; considered a "wear and tear" disorder. Also called degenerative joint disease.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Inflammatory joint disease believed to be autoimmune in nature; occurs in a much younger population (ages 20-45) than osteoarthritis.

Tendinitis

Inflammation of a tendon.

Herniated Intervertebral Disk

Protrusion of the central part of the disk that lies between the vertebrae, resulting in compression of the nerve root and pain.

Kyphosis

Extreme posterior curvature of the thoracic area of the spine.

Lordisis

Swayback; exaggerated anterior curve of the lumbar vertebrae. (lower back)

Scoliosis

Lateral S curve of the spine that can cause an individual to lose inches in height.

Spinal stenosis

Abnormal condition of narrowing of the spinal canal with attendant pain, sometimes caused by osteoarthritis or spondylolisthesis.

Spondylolisthesis

Condition resulting from the partial forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it.

Spondylosis

An abnormal condition characterized by stiffening of the vertebral joints.

Chondroma

Benign tumor of the cartilage, usually occurring in children and adolescents.

Chondrosarcoma

Malignant tumor of the cartilage. Occurs most frequently in adults.

Osteosarcoma

Malignant tumor of bone. Also called Ewing Sarcoma. Most common children's bone cancer.

Laminectomy

Removal of the bony arches of one or more vertebrae to relieve compression of the spinal cord.

Osteoplasty

Surgical repair of a bone.

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