THE ULTIMATE STUDY FOR MORZENTI CHAPTER #5

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This is the ULTIMATE study for Mr. Morzenti's upcoming identify and define test chapter 5 on Greece by IBrain. Section I: HAS BEEN MADE. Section II: HAS BEEN MADE. Section III: HAS BEEN MADE. Section IV: HAS BEEN MADE. Section V: HAS BEEN MADE. EVERY SENTENCE FROM THE BOOK IS INCLUDED!

False, it was a collection of seperate lands where Greek-speaking people lived.

True of False: Greece was a united country in ancient times.

The Minoans

This was a group of people that lived on the large Greek island of Crete by 3000 B.C. They created an elegant civilization that had great power in the Mediterranean world.

People migrated and settled in mainland Greec

What was happening at the same time when the people of Crete, the Minoans, were thriving on their civilization?

Ancient Greece

It consisted of mainly a mountainous peninsula that jutted out into the Meditterranean Sea. It included about 2,000 Islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas. Lands on the eastern edge of the Aegean were also a part of Ancient Greece.

The Aegean and Ionian Seas

The two bodies of water which included the 2,000 islands of Greece. These also were important transportation routes for the Greek people.

Greece's Physical Geography

This feature is what directly shaped Greek traditions and customs.

The Seas of Greece

This shaped Greek civilizations just as the rivers of shaped the ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, India, and China. The Greeks did not live ON a land but AROUND the sea.

Distance Greeks had to travel to reach the coastline.

At most 85 miles.

Seaways

Linked most parts of Greece allowing Greece to connect with other societies.

Sea Travel

This was very important in Greek society since Greece lacked natural resources, such as timber, precious metals, and usable farmland.

Rugged Mountains

Physical feature that covered three-fourths of Greece. It ran from the northwest to the southeast along the Balkan peninsula.

Mountains

Divides the land into a number of different regions, which caused a significant impact on Greek political life. Instead of a single-government, the Greeks developed small, independent communities within each little valley and it's surrounding mountains. Greeks then gave loyalty to these small communities (caused by what)?

Uneven Terrain

This made transportation land difficult causing the roads that existed only to be little dirt paths. It often therefore took travelers several days to complete a journey that takes a few hours today.

Arable

Suitable for farming. (This type of land was rarely found in Greece where the land was mostly stony).

Tiny Fertile Valleys

Covered the remaining one-fourth of Greece.

Greece had very little amounts of fertile farmland and fresh water for irrigation which are essential to support a population.

Why was Greece not able to support a large population?

No more than a few million people at any given time.

Amount of people to have lived in Greece estimated by Historians.

Factors that motivated the Greeks to seek new sights for colonies:

A desire for more living space, grassland for raising livestock, and adequate farmland.

Climate

The third environmental influence on Greek civilization. This varied, with up to cool temperatures in the winter and only warm in the summer. This supported and promoted outdoor life for many Greek Citizens.

48 F

Average temperature in the Winter in ancient Greece.

80 F

Average temperature in the summer in ancient Greece.

Outdoor Public Events

Where men spent much of their leisure time and often met to discuss public issues, exchange news, and take part in an active civic life.

Indo-Europeans

Migrated from the Eurasian steppes to Europe, India, and Southwest Asia.

Mycenaeans

The Indo-Europeans that settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. After 1500 B.C., through trade or war they came into contact with the Mineoan civilization.

Mycenae

The leading kingdom of the Mycenaeans located in southern Greece on a steep, rocky rigde protected by a 20 foot thick wall. This fortified city could almost withstand any attack.

Warrior-King

Especially in Mycenae, the ______ ruled the surrounding villages and farms. Strong rulers controlled other areas Mycenaean cities such as Tiryns and Athens, dominating Greece from about 1600 to 1100 B.C.

Seaborn Trade

What the Mycenaean saw as a value after their contact with the Minoans.

Mycenaean Traders

Sailed across much of the eastern Meditterranean, making stops at the Aegean islands, coastal towns in Anatolia, and ports in Syria, Egypt, Italy, and Crete.

Minoan Influences

The Mycenaeans also adapted their writing systemto the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan designs. This produced the core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literature.

Western Civilization

Has its roots from the Minoan and Mycenean (early Meditterranean) civilizations.

Troy

An independent trading city located in Anatolia.

The Mycenaeans against Troy

Who fought against who in the Trojan War during the 1200s B.C. for 10 years?

The Reason (Legend) of the Trojan War

A Greek army besieged and destrowed Troy because a Trojan prince had (possibly) kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king. (You wrote about this in the DBQ).

Trojan War

The 10-year war fought against the Troy by the Mycenaeans and believed to have been fictional, however, excavations conducted in Northwestern Turkey in the 1870s suggests that the stories of this war might have been based on real cities, peoples, and events. The nature of this war yet remains unclear and is believed to have been the last Mycenaean battle campaigns.

Heinrich Schliemann

A German Archaeologist that led excavations in northwestern Turkey during the 1870s in which evidence was found suggesting the legend of the Trojan War possibly true.

The Mycenaean civilization collapsed.

This happened not long after the Trojan War when Sea Raiders attacked and burned many of the civilization's cities.

Dorians

A new group of people which moved to the war-torn countryside left after the collapse of the Mycenaeans. This group of people spoke a dialect of Greek and may have been distant relatives of the Bronze Age Greeks. They were far less advanced than the Mycenaeans and their economy collapsed and trade ended soon after their arrival.

Dorain Age

According to historians, the time period where Greeks appear to have temporarily lost the art of writing. No written record exists during this 400 year period between 1150 and 750 B.C. As a result, little is known about this period of Greek history.

Homer

A blind man who became the greatest storyteller during the Dorian Age about history when the Greeks lacked writing. He also composed epics between 750 and 700 B.C.

Epic

Narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds.

The Iliad

One of Homer's great epics, holds the backdrop of the Trojan War.

Achilles and Hector

The two heroic warriors from thee Iliad, courageous and noble.

Arete

The Greek heroic ideal meaning virtue and excellence. This ideal could be displayed by a Greek on the battlefield in combat or in athletic contests on the playing field.

Myths

Traditions and Stories, (about the Greek gods).

Theogony

Another epic, written by Hesiod is the source of much of Greek mythology. Greeks tried to understand mysteries of nature and the power of human passions.

Hesiod

The Greek author of the epic, Theogony.

Attributed Qualities of the Greek Gods

Love, hate, jealousy....The gods quarreled and competed constantly. They lived forever.

Zeus

Ruler of the gods living on the Mount Olympus with his wife Hera.

Hera

Jealous of her husband Zeus.

Athena

Goddess of wisdom, Zeus' daughter, and his favorite child. Also thought by the Greeks as the guardian of cities, especially of Athens, named after her.

The Dorian Age

During what age did Greek civilization experience a decline?

Two things that changed life in Greece

(1) Dorians and Mycenaeans alike began to identify less with the culture of their ancestors and more with the local area where they lived.
(2) By the end of the period, the method of governing areas had changed from tribal to clan control to more formal governments - the city-states.

Polis

A city-state that was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece by 750 B.C. It was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, which included numerous villages. Most city-states controlled between 50 to 500 square miles in territory. They were often home to fewer than 10,000 residents.

Acropolis

The agora or marketplace on a fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city governments.

Greek Governments

They had many different kinds: Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Oligarchy.

Monarchy

When a single person, called a king, ruled the government.

Aristocracy

A government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families. These very rich families often gained political power after serving in a king's military cavalry. Later, as trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants and artisans emerged in some cities.

Oligarchy

A type of government usually formed when groups became dissatisfied with aristocratic rule where the government is ruled by a few powerful people.

Clashes between the rulers and common people.

What occurred often in city-states?

Powerful Individuals

Usually nobles or other wealthy citizens which sometimes seized control of the government by appealing to the common people for support.

Tyrants

The powerful individuals mention before, not considered harsh and cruel but rather looked upon as leaders who would work for the interest of the ordinary people. Once in power, they often set up building programs to provide jobs and housing for their supporters.

Athens

A city-state in which the idea of representative government began to take place and went through power struggles between rich and poor. They, however, avoided major political upheavals by making timely reforms. The reformers therefore turned towards democracy.

Democracy

Rule by the people. In Athens, citizens participated directly in political decision making.

Draco

A nobleman in which the first step towards democracy came when in 621 B.C. took power and developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law. Draco's code dealt very harshly with criminals, making death the punishment for practically every crime. It also upheld debt slavery.

Debt Slavory

Where debtors worked as slaves to repay their debts.

Solon

Came into power in 594 B.C. and created far more democratic reforms by first stating that no citizen should own another citizen, and therefore outlawed slavery. He organized all Athenian citizens into four different social classes based on wealth in which the top three classes could hold political office. All citizens, regardless of class, could participate in the Athenian assembly. Also the concept that a citizen can bring charges against another was introduced.

Cleisthenes

Another Athenian ruler from about 500 B.C. introduced further reforms by breaking up the power of the nobility by organizing citizens into ten group based on where they lived rather than their wealth. He also increased the the power of assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He also created thee Council of Five Hundred.

Council of Five Hundred

The body that proposed laws and counciled the assembly. Members were chosen by lot, or by random.

Free Adult Male Poverty Owners Born in Athens

The people considered citizens (in Athens).

Woman, Slaves, and Foreigners

The people excluded from citizenship and had few rights.

Education

Received only by the sons of the wealthy families, Schooling began around age seven and largely prepared boys to be good citizens. They studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics, and music. They also received training in logic and public speaking since they were expected to debate issues in the assembly. They thought it was important to train the body so part of each day was spent with athletic activities.

Military School

Where Athenian boys would go after they became older to help them prepare for another important duty of citizenship, defending Athens.

Athenian Girls

They did not attend school but were educated at home by their mothers and other female members of the household. They had very little to do with Athenian life.

What Athenian Girls Learned

They learned about child-rearing, weaving cloth, preparing meals, managing the household, and other skills that helped them become good mothers and wives. (Some were even able to learn to read and write but this was very rare).

Peloponnesus

The southern part of Greece of where Sparta was located.

Sparta

This city in peloponnesus was nearly cut off by the rest of Greece by the Gulf of Corinth. This city greatly contrasted sharply with other city-states such as Athens. Instead of a democracy, this city built a military state.

Messenia

The region that the Spartans conquered and took over the land in 725 B.C., which later caused them to become helots. After Spartan's harsh rule, they revolted in 650 B.C.

Helots

Peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. Each year, Spartans demanded half their crop.

Because they were outnumbered by the Messenians 8 to 1 and barely put down the revolt.

Why did Sparta dedicate itself to become a strong city-state?

Spartan Government

Composed of several branches.

Assembly

Composed of all Spartan citizens, elected officials and voted on major issues.

The Council of Elders

Made up of 30 older citizens, proposed laws on which the assembly voted.

Five Elected Officials

They carried out the laws passed by the Spartan assembly. They also controlled education and prosecuted court cases.

Two Kings

Ruled over Sparta's military forces.

The Spartan Social Order

Consisted of several groups. The first descended from the original inhabitants of the region. This group included the ruling families who owned the land. A second group, non-citizens who were free, worked in industry and commerce. The helots, at the bottom of Spartan society were a little better than slaves. They worked in the fields or as house servants.

600 to 371 B.C.

Time period in which Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece.

Military Supremecy

In order to have this, Spartans had to pay a high price. All forms of individual expressions were discouraged. As a result, Spartans did not value the arts, literature, or other artistic and intellectual pursuits.

What Spartans Valued

Duty, Strength, and Discipline over freedom, individuality, beauty, and learning.

Men Serving in the Spartan Military

They were expected to serve until the age of 60 and their daily life was centered on the military. Boys left home at 7 and moved to army barracks until they were 30. They spent days marching, exercising, and fighting. This was done in all weather and conditions. They slept with no blankets on hard benches. The daily diet consisted of black porridge or were encouraged to steal food.

Spartan Girls

Led hardy lives receiving some military training. They ran, wrestled, and played sports. Taught to put service for Sparta above everything, including love of family. They had much freedom and were able to run their estates when men were in the military. This surprised men in other Greek city-states.

Danger of a helot revolt.

What led Sparta to become a military state?

Struggles between the rich and the poor.

What led Athens to become a democracy?

Bronze spears, shields, breastplates, and chariots.

This could only be afforded by the rich during the Dorian age. The rich also were the only to serve in armies.

Iron

This later replace bronze in the manufacture of weapons as it was harder, cheaper, and more common. This therefore allowed ordinary citizens to defend themeselves. The army therefore could be composed by merchants, artisans, and small landowners.

Hoplites

The foot soldiers of the army which stood side by side each holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other.

Phalanx

The fearsome formation of the hoplites which became a powerful fighting force in the ancient world.

The Persian War

A war fought between Greece and the Persian empire beginning in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia. Greeks had long been settled there but around 546 B.C., the Persians conquered the area. When Ionian Greeks revolted, Athens sent ships and soldiers to their aid.

Darius the Great

The Persian king that defeated the rebels and vowed to destroy Athens in revenge.

Pheidippides

He was a runner chosen by the Athenians (because the stood defenseless) to run back to Athens bringing news of the Persian defeat so the Athenians wouldn't give up their city without a fight. He dashed 26 miles from Marathon to Athens and delivered the message, "Rejoice, we conquer," before collapsing. The Greek army was therefore able to return to Athens and defend the city when the Persians sailed into the harbor causing them to retreat.

Xerxes

The son of Darius the Great, ten years later in 480 B.C., who assembled an enormous invasion force to crush Athens. The Greeks at the time were divided, some said "Ay, lets protect Athens and fight," while the other half thought wiser, "just let the Persians destroy Athens." As a consequence, Xerxes' army found no resistance.

Thermopylae

The narrow mountain pass where Xerxes was blocked by 7,000 Greeks including 300 Spartans. Xerxes underestimated and his army was stopped after three days. A traitor, however, let the Persians know of a shortcut elsewhere...

The Spartans' Valiant Sacrifice

All were killed when they stayed to fight the remaining Persians at Thermopylae when the Greeks retreated to stop the Persians passing through the "shortcut" mentioned earlier.

Themistocles

An Athenian leader of whom convince the debating Athenians to evacuate the city and fight at sea.

Salamis

The island having a narrow channel where the Athenians positioned their fleet, a few miles southwest of Athens. The channel was so narrow the Persian ships had trouble turning while the Greek ships attacked and punctured holed at the enemy. After burning the city of Athens, Xerxed later watched in horror as more than 1/3 of his fleet sank.

The Battle of Plataea

The battle where the Greeks routed (defeated) the Persians in 479 B.C. causing the Persians afterwards to always be on the defensive side.

The Delian League

An alliance formed by several Greek city-states a year after the Battle of Plataea. League members continued to press the war against the Persians for several more years. This ended the threat of future attacks.

The Persian War Aftermath

The Greek city-states feel a new sense of confidence and freedom. During the 470s B.C., Athens emerged the leader of the Delian League, which had grown to 200 city-states. Military force was used to members that challenged the authority. This prestige of victory is what caused Athens to enter the Golden Age.

The Golden Age of Athens

A time of about 50 years from 477 to 431 B.C. when Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning. During this age, drama, sculpture, poetry, philosohy, architecture, and science al reached new heights. The artistic and literary legacies of the time continued to inspire and instruct people acround the world.

Pericles

A wise and able statesman that led Athens during much of its golden age. He was honest and fair, holding onto popular support for 32 years. He was a skillful politician, an inspiring speaker, and a respected general. He dominated the life of Athens from 461 to 429 B.C.

The Age of Pericles

The time between 461 to 429 B.C. in which Pericle dominated the life of Athens during the Golden Age.

The Three Goals of Pericles

(1) To strengthen Athenian democracy.
(2) To hold and strengthen the empire.
(3) To glorify Athens.

He increased the number of officials with paid salaries as earlier in Athens, most positions in public office were unpaid and therefore only wealthier Athenian citizens could afford to hold public office.

What did Pericles do to strengthen democracy?

Branches of the Athenian Democracy

Legislative Branch
Executive Branch
Judaical Branch

Result of Pericles Strengthening Democracy

Now even the poorest citizen could serve if elected or chosen by lot. Athens therefore had more citizens engaged in self-government than any other city-state in Greece. This reform made Athens one of the most democratic governments in history. This introduced direct democracy.

Direct Democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. This became an important legacy of Periclean Athens. Few other city-states practiced this tyle of government. In Athens, male citizens who served in the assembly established all the important government policies that affected the polis.

Delian League and Pericles

Athens, as mentioned earlier, took over leadership of the league and dominated the city-states in it. Pericles used the money from the league's treasury to make the Athenian navy the strongest in the Mediterranean.

A Strong Navy

This was very important because it helped Athens strengthen the safety of its empire.

Prosperity

This depended on gaining access to the surrounding waterways. Athens needed overseas trade to obtain supplies of grain and other raw materials.

Athenian Military

This may have allowed Pericles to treat other members of the Delian League as part of the empire. Some cities in Peloponnesus, however, resisted Athens and formed their own alliances. Sparta in particular was at odds with Athens.

Another Reason Pericles Used Money From the Delian League

Money was used as well to beautify the city of Athens. Pericles persuaded the Athenian assembly to vote huge sums of the league's money to buy gold, ivory, and marble. Even more money went to pay the artists, architects, and workers who used those materials.

Pericles' Goal

To have the greatest Greek artists and architects create magnificent sculptures and buildings to glorify Athens.

Parthenon

One of architecture's noblest work, the center of Pericles' goal plan. This was a masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship but not unique in style. Greek architects constructed the 23,000 square-foot building in the traditional style that had been used to create Greek temples for 200 years. It was built to honor Athena and contained examples of Greek art that set standards for future generations of artists around the world.

Phidias

A sculptor of whom Pericles entrusted much of the work on the Parthenon on. He crafted a giant statue of Athena that not only contained such precious materials as gold and ivory but stood 30 feet tall. He and other sculptors during the Golden Age aimed to make sculptures that were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed.

Greek Sculptures

They were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. Their faces showed neither joy nor anger, only serenity. Greek sculptors also tried to capture the grace of the idealized human body in motion. They wanted to portray ideal beauty, not realism.

Classical Art

The proportional values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion found in this type of art.

Greek Theatre

The Greeks invented drama as an art form and built the first theaters in the west. Theatrical productions in Athens were both an expression of civic pride and a tribute to the gods. As a part of their civic duties, wealthy citizens bore the cost of producing plays.

Greek Plays

They were about leadership, justice, and the duties served to the gods. They often included a chorus that danced, sang, and recited poetry. Actors used colorful costumes, masks, and sets to dramatize stories.

The Two Kinds of Drama Greeks Wrote

Tragedy and Comedy.

Tragedy

A serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal. These dramas often featured a main character, or tragic hero. The hero usually was an important person and often gifted with extraordinary abilities. A tragic fall usually caused the hero's downfall. Often this flaw was hubris.

Hubris

Excessive Pride, often the flaw of the hero in a tragedy.

Three Notable Greek Dramatists

Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

Aeschylus

Wrote more than 80 plays, his most famous being Oresteia.

Oresteia

A three-play tragedy series based on the family of Agamnon, the Mycenaean king who commanded the Greeks at Troy. The play examines the idea of justice.

Sophocles

Wrote more than 100 plays including Oedipus the King and Antigone.

Euripides

The author of the play Medea, often featuring strong woman in his works.

Comedy

A contrast to a Greek tragedy which contained scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor. These playwrights often made fun of politics and respected people and ideas of the time.

Aristophanes

He wrote one of the first great comedies for the stage including The Birds and Lysistrata.

Lysistrata

Portrayed the woman of Athens forcing their husbands to end the Peloponnesian War. The fact that Athenians could show criticism of themselves showed the freedom and openness of public discussion. that existed in democratic Athens.

True

True or False: There was no written record in the Dorian period.

The Epic Poems of Homer

They recount stories, but are not accurate recordings of what took place.

Herodotus

A Greek who lived in Athens for a time pioneering the accurate reportings of events.

Herodotus' book on the Persian war.

What is considered the first work of history?

Thucydides

An Athenian considered the greatest historian of the classical age as he believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time. Studying those events and situations, he felt, would aid in understanding the present. This approach is still used by historians today.

Effects of Athens' Rise

As Athens grew in wealth an power, other city-states began to view it with hostility. Ill will was especially strong between Sparta and Athens. Many people thought a war between the two was inevitable. Instead of trying to avoid conflict, leaders in Athens and Sparta pressed for war to begin, as both groups of leaders believed their own city had an advantage. Eventually, Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 B.C.

The Peloponnesian War

The war fought between Athens and Sparta beginning in 431 B.C. When the war began, Athens had the stronger navy, but Sparta had the stronger army and an inland location making it hard for it to be attacked by sea.

Pericles' War Strategy

To avoid land battles with the Spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike Sparta and its allies from sea.

Spartan Strategy

They marched into Athenian territory and swept over the countryside, burning Athenian food supply. Pericles responded by bringing residents from the surrounding region inside city walls. The city was safe from hunger as long as ships could sail into port with supply from Athenian colonies and foreign states.

The 2nd Year of the Peloponnesian War

Disaster struck Athens. A frightful plague swept through the cty, killing about one-third of the population, including Pericles. Although weakened, Athens continued to fight for several years. Then in 421 B.C., the two sides, worn down by the war, signed a truce.

The "Afterwar" Truce Failure

It did not last long as in 415 B.C, the Athenians sent a huge fleet carrying more than 20,000 soldiers to the island of Sicily. Their plan was to destroy the city-state of Syracuse, one of Sparta's wealthiest allies. The expedition ended with a crushing defeat in 413 B.C. Thucydides recalled how Athenians were totally destroyed. Athens, however, was able to defend Sparta somehow, being so weak, for another nine years.

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