Chemical Reactions/Compounds Study Guide

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Compound

substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined

Molecule

smallest part of a compound that has all the properties of the compound

Mixture

Two or more substances that have been combined, but not chemically changed.

Organic Compound

Compound containing carbon

Structural Formula

Molecular model of an organic compound

Amino Acids

compounds that are the building blocks of proteins

Carbohydrates

compounds that make sugars and starches

Lipids

compounds that make fats and oils needed to repair the body

Proteins

commpounds needed to build and repair that body

physical change

a change that alters the form or appearance of a substance but doesn't make the material into another substance

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atom

the smallest particle of an element

element

a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means

molecule

a combo of 2 or more atoms that are bonded together

compound

a substnace made of 2 or more elements chemically combined

proton

small, positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

the average mass of one atom of an element

periodic table

an arrangement of the elements in order of atomic number, in which elements with similar properties are grouped in columns

families

elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table

electron

a tiny, negatively charged, high-energy particle that moves in the space outside the nucleus of an atom

neutron

small, uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom

valence electrons

the electrons that are the farthest away from the nucleus of an atom and involved in chemical reactions

chemical reaction

a process in which substances undergo chemical changes

synthesis

a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance

decomposition

a chemical reaction that breaks down a compound into simpler products

endothermic reaction

a reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat

exothermic reaction

a reaction that releases energy in the form of heat

precipitate

a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction

chemical equation

a short, easy way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols instead of words

reactant

a substnace that enters into a chemical reaction

product

a substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

conservation of mass

the principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction

coefficient

the "big" number in a chemical formula that shows the number of molecules of a compound

synthesis

a chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one larger substance

replacement reaction

a chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound, or when two elements in different compounds trade places

Protons

positively charged particles located in the nucleus

Neutrons

Particles in nucleus with neutral charge

Electrons

negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus

Atoms

Tiny particles of matter containing protons, neutrons, and electrons

Substituent

Any atom or group of atoms that can take the place of a hydrogen atom on a parent hydrocarbon molecule

Covalent Bond

Chemical bonding in which electrons are shared rather than transferred

Alkene

Unsaturated hydrocarbon in which at least one pair of carbon atoms is joned by a double covalent bond

Substituent

Any part of the molecule that is not part of the parent chain

Isomer

Organic compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas

Unsaturated hydrocarbon

One or more of the bonds between carbon atoms is a double covalent or triple covalent bond

Hydrocarbon

Organic compounds that only contain hydrogen and carbon

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Straight-chain or branched chain saturated hydrocarbon in which all bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds

polymers

Long chains of unit molecules are called

organic compounds

most compounds that contain carbon

Chemical reactions

The process in which substances undergo chemical changes that results in the formation of new substances.

Compound

A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio, or proportion.

Mixture

Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined.

Physical change

A change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not make the material into another substance.

Chemical reaction

The process in which substances undergo chemical changes that results in the formation of new substances.

Precipitate

A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Molecule

The combination of two or more atoms.

Chemical bond

The force that holds atoms together.

Chemical equation

A short, easy way to show chemical reactions, using symbols instead of words.

Symbol

A one or two letter set of characters that is used to identify elements.

Reactants

A substance that enters into a chemical reaction.

Products

A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.

Conservation of mass

The principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction.

Coefficient

A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

Synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance.

Decomposition

A chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.

Replacement reaction

A reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound; or when two elements in different compounds trade places.

Exothermic reaction

A reaction that releases energy in the form of heat.

Endothermic reaction

A reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat.

Activation energy

The minimum amount of energy that has to be added to get a chemical reaction started.

Catalyst

A material that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.

Enzyme

A biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy of reactions in cells.

Inhibitor

A material that decreases the rate of a reaction.

Combustion

A rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in fire.

Fuel

A material that releases energy when it burns.

alcohol

a substituted hydrocarbon with one or more hydroxyl groups

carboxyl group

a COOH group found in organic acids

cellulose

a complex carbohydrate found in plain matter

cholesterol

a waxy lipid in animal and human cells

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