movement of molecules/ions/substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a differentially permeable membrane (does not use ATP)
relative solution concentrations
animal cell collapse
in plant cells, the collapse of the plasma/cell membrane due to water loss from the large, central vacuole. Occurs when a plant cell is in a hypertonic environment
plasmolysis occurs when a plant cell is in a ____ environment.
in plant an animal cells, when a cell becomes filled with water. The cell cannot take in any more water. It will stretch, burst, or simply not let any more water into cell. The pressure exerted on the plasma membrane and/or cell wall is called turgor pressure. Occurs when the cell is in hypotonic environment.
Turgidity occurs when the cell is in a _____ environment.
lower solute (more water) concentration outside the cell than inside the cell. causes any cell to gain water by osmosis and possibly become turgid (ex. 100% water)
example of hypotonic environment
higher solute (less water) concentration outside the cell than inside the cell. causes any cell to lose water by osmosis. In a plant cell will cause plasmolysis. (ex. 10% saline/solute; 90% water/solvent)
10% saline; 90% water
example of hypertonic environment
solute concentration (water same) the same inside and outside of the cell. Cell will neither gain or lose water by osmosis. There will be no net change to cell. (ex. 0.9% NaCl)
substance being dissolved (dissolved particles)
dissolving agent (water)
a solvent with solutes dissolved in it
low to high concentration, example would be potassium pump (in your nerve cells, conduction of an impulse) uses ATP's
req. transfer protein to pick up and move
First law of thermodynamics
law of the conservation of energy- energy is neither created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
law of conservation of energy
The _____ __ _______ __ _______ states that energy is neither created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.
the ability to do work and cause change
the controlled capacity to acquire energy and to use the energy
energy molecule put to immediate use in a cell.
organelle where most ATP is produced
most ATP is produced in the organelle known as the mitochondria by the process of _____
energy of activation
the required input of energy most chemical reactions require in order to start
enzyme lowers activation energy by serving as ______
extraction of bond energy of carbohydrates and lipids and its conversion to bond energy of ATP requires these two types of reactions
loss of an electron or of hydrogen (there is a loss of energy, molecule that loses electron is oxidized)
gain of an electron or of hydrogen (there is a gain of energy, molecule that gains electron is reduced)
specialized molecules that transfer electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions in living organisms
two types of electron carriers involved in ATP production in the mitochondria
Step after glycolysis if no oxygen is available
step after glycolysis if oxygen is available
the study of cells
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Holland- first functional compound light microscope. First to view and describe living organisms using microscope which he looked at a sample of pond water
Britain- Looked at cork under a crude microscope and observed dead plant "cell." He is the person who coined the use of the word "cell."
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Germany- two important people associated with cytology, the cell theory
Prokaryote Cell Plan
cell lacks typical cellular structures known as organelles, no chromosomes, and no nucleus. Ex. bacteria
Eukaryote Cell Plan
cell contains organelles, has nucleus with chromosomes. Ex. animal cells, plant cells, funal cells, protist cells and eukaryote organisms.
cells are small because the movement of molecules within the cell depends primarily upon _____, which is effective only over short distances
a specialized part of a eukaryotic cell that is analogous to an organ
found surrounding cell contents in both plant and animal cells. Made of a double layer of phospholipid molecules which gives the _______ a property of being "differentially permeable." This means that the ______ allows only certain molecules to enter and exit the cell
found outside the cell membrane only in plant cells. the function is to support and strengthen the cell because of the presence of cellulose. gives plant cells their hexagonal shape.
contains chromatin (chromosomes) that are made of DNA. DNA directs the manufacture of protein enzymes and this function makes the ____ the "control center of the cell." Also contains nucleolus that is made of RNA
network of membranes continuous with the outer membrane (nuclear envelope) of the nucleus. Provides the surface area for synthesis of several types of large molecules such as lipids and proteins. Smooth _________ contains no ribosomes and is where lipids are synthesized. Rough _______ contains ribosomes which are organelles for proteins synthesis only
attached to rough ER or free in cytoplasm. site of protein synthesis
function is the packaging, storage, and distribution of molecules produced by the ER.
specific vesicles produced by the golgi apparatus that contain powerful enzymes for digesting all sorts of molecules. used to fight disease and to recycle molecules
vesicles that contain enzymes that are produced by free ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell.
storage area filled with water and "stuff" in the water. large in plants, small in animal cells
site of ATP production, "powerhouse of the cell"
occurs only in plant cells. these organelles contain pigment such as chlorophyll that are photosynthetic.
cilia and flagella
function: movement of the cell
example of where anaerobic respiration is used
Where in the cell does aerobic respiration occur?
in aerobic cellular respiration, glucose is used in the beginning of ________
a process of cellular respiration that uses oxygen in order to break down molecules, which then release electrons and creating energy. In the process, creates a substance known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
the first major stage of aerobic respiration, in which ATP is created, as are carbon molecules, called pyruvate or pyruvic acid, and some molecules known as NADH
second major stage of aerobic cellular respiration. This takes some of the carbon not used in the first stage and puts them through another series of complex chemical reactions, creating more NADH and molecules known as FADH2.
Electron Transport System
third major step in aerobic respiration. creates even more ATP for use by converting those other molecules for that purpose. Along the way, as NADH is produced, carbon dioxide is created as a waste product.
simple cell division
the dividing of the cell (occurs in telophase)
animal cell cytokinesis is called ______ . cell pinches in from outside
cell plate formation
plant cell cytokinesis is by _______. plate forms inside to outside due to cell wall presence.
shortest phase of mitosis
longest phase of mitosis
an organized building of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes
2 identical copies of a chromatin connected by a centromere
protein structures that pull apart the genetic material in a cell when the cell divides
cylindrical structures, found in animal cells, that are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 + 3 pattern
a region of DNA typically found near the middle of a chromosome where two identical sister chromatids come in contact. It is involved in cell division as the point of mitotic spindle attachment
Second law of thermodynamics
states that energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy
the chloroplasts in plants capture solar energy and use it to convert water and carbon dioxide into a carbohydrate. oxygen is a by-product.