Anatomy III - Exam 2 - Myology

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Myology review

Policis

Muscles pertaining to the thumb.

Hallucis

Muscles pertaining to the big toe.

Digitorum

Muscles pertaining to the fingers and toes but NOT the thumb or big toe.

Abduction

Pulls body away from the mid-line

Adduction

Pulls body toward the mid-line

Adductor Brevis Muscle

Medial Femoral Muscles - Adductor Group

Adductor Longus Muscle

Medial Femoral Muscles - Adductor Group

Adductor Magnus Muscle

Medial Femoral Muscles - Adductor Group

Anterior Tibial Artery

The anterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the anterior tibial vein, along its course. It crosses the anterior aspect of the ankle joint, at which point it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery.

Arch Of The Aorta - (Transverse Aorta)

begins at the level of the upper border of the second sternocostal articulation of the right side, and passes downward on the left side of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra, at the lower border of which it becomes continuous with the descending aorta. Branches in order left to right Brachiocephalic, Left common carotid and left subclavian.

Ascending Aorta

The portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, its vessels are the right and left coronary arteries.

Ascending Pharyngeal Artery

the smallest branch of the external carotid, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid.

Atrial Septum

is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart.

Axillary Artery

is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery. After passing the lower margin of teres major it becomes the brachial artery.

Brachial Artery

It is the continuation of the axillary artery beyond the lower margin of teres major muscle. It continues down the ventral surface of the arm until it reaches the cubital fossa at the elbow. It then divides into the radial and ulnar arteries which run down the forearm.

Buccinator - (Trumpeter)

is a thin quadrilateral muscle, occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. Its purpose is to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area, which aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing. It aids whistling and smiling and in neonates it is used to suckle.

Calcaneous Tendon

In humans, the tendon passes behind the ankle. It is the thickest and strongest tendon in the body. The Achilles tendon (or occasionally Achilles' tendon), also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendo calcaneus, is a tendon of the posterior leg. It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone.

Cheek

constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear. It is also called the jowls.

Circumduction

the circular movement of a limb.

Common Carotid Artery

is an artery that supplies the head and neck with oxygenated blood; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries. Left common carotid arising from the actual arch of the aorta the right bifurcating from the brachiocephalic artery.

Common Facial Artery

This arises from the carotid artery either, in common with the lingual artery, or immediately superior to it. It then passes superiorly under the cover of the digastric and stylohyoid muscles and the angle of the mandible. Then the artery hooks around the inferior border of the mandible and enters the face.

Connective Tissue

is a form of fibrous tissue. It is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue). These tissues have mechanical characteristics of soft tissue. They aid in major packing material, organ framework, provide lubrication, and in the passage of blood vessels and nerves.

Coronary Arteries

are the vessels which bring the blood to the heart muscle. They are the branches from the ascending aorta.

Coronary Sinus

is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium of the heart. It is located in the right atrium and runs transversely in the groove between the left atrium and ventricle on the posterior surface of the heart. It drains into the right atrium on the posterior, inferior surface, medial to the inferior vena cava opening.

Corrugator (frowning)

is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle, placed at the medial end of the eyebrow, beneath the Frontalis and just above Orbicularis oculi. The Corrugator draws the eyebrow downward and medialward, producing the vertical wrinkles of the forehead. It is the "frowning" muscle, and may be regarded as the principal muscle in the expression of suffering. It also contracts in order to prevent high sun glare, pulling the eyebrows toward the bridge of the nose, making a roof over the area above the middle corner of the eye and typical forehead furrows.

Deltoid

is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder. It is called so because it is in the shape of the Greek letter Delta (triangle). It is also known as the common shoulder muscle, from the anterior border and upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle. From the lateral margin and upper surface of the acromion, from the lower lip of the posterior border of the spine of the scapula, as far back as the triangular surface at its medial end.

Descending Abdominal Aorta

is the final section of the aorta. It begins at the diaphragm as a continuation of the thoracic aorta and runs down to where the aorta ends (by splitting into the two leg arteries). The abdominal aorta supplies oxygenated blood to all of the abdominal and pelvic organs and the legs. Within the abdomen, the aorta branches into the two common iliac arteries which serve the legs.

Descending Thoracic Aorta

the part of the aorta that runs from the arch of the aorta to the diaphragm, gives off numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest.

Dorsalis Pedis Artery

is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It terminates at the proximal part of the first intermetatarsal space, where it divides into two branches.

Endocardium

is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart; which is primarily made up of endothelial cells, controls myocardial function.

Epicardium

describes the outer layer of heart tissue. When considered as a part of the pericardium, it is the inner layer, or visceral pericardium, continuous with the serous layer. Its largest constituent is connective tissue and functions as a protective layer.

Epicranium

the broad muscular and tendinous layer of tissue covering the top and sides of the skull from the occipital bone to the eyebrows. It consists of broad, thin muscular bellies, connected by an extensive aponeurosis. Innervation of the epicranius by branches of the facial nerves can draw back the scalp, raise the eyebrows, and move the ears.

Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial tissue covers the whole surface of the body. It is made up of cells closely packed and ranged in one or more layers. This tissue is specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces. Epithelial tissue that occurs on surfaces on the interior of the body is known as endothelium. Epithelial cells are packed tightly together, with almost no intercellular spaces and only a small amount of intercellular substance. Epithelial tissue, regardless of the type, is usually separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective tissue; basement membrane.

Extension

Straighten out the body part, increases the angle between body parts.

Extensor

Straighten out the body part, increases the angle between body parts

External Oblique

is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen. It is situated on the lateral and anterior parts of the abdomen. It is broad, thin, and irregularly quadrilateral, its muscular portion occupying the side, its aponeurosis the anterior wall of the abdomen.

External Pterygoid

is a muscle of mastication with two heads. The upper/superior head originates on the infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, and the lower/inferior head on the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate.

Fascia

is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together like plastic sandwich wraps. The function of muscle fasciae is to reduce friction to minimize the reduction of muscular force. In doing so, fasciae allow muscles to glide over each other.

Femoral Artery

They begin at the inguinal ligament (femoral head) and end just above the knee at adductor canal or Hunter's canal traversing the extent of the femur bone.

Flexion

is a position that is made possible by the joint angle decreasing. For example the elbow is flexed when the hand is brought closer to the shoulder. The trunk may be flexed toward the legs or the neck to the chest.

Gastrocnemius Muscle

also called leg triceps, Posterior view of the right leg, showing the muscles of the hip, thigh, and lower leg. Large posterior muscle of the calf of the leg. It originates at the back of the femur (thighbone) and patella (kneecap) and, joining the soleus (another muscle of the calf), is attached to the Achilles tendon at the heel. Action of the gastrocnemius pulls the heel up and thus extends the foot downward; the muscle provides the propelling force in running and jumping.

Gluteus Maximus

is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. It makes up a large portion of the shape and appearance of the buttocks. It is a broad and thick fleshy mass of a quadrilateral shape, and forms the prominence of the nates. Its large size is one of the most characteristic features of the muscular system in humans, connected as it is with the power of maintaining the trunk in the erect posture.

Gracilis

(Latin for "slender") is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh. It is thin and flattened, broad above, narrow and tapering below. It arises by a thin aponeurosis from the anterior margins of the lower half of the symphysis pubis and the upper half of the pubic arch.

Inguinal Ligament

is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. The ligament serves to contain soft tissues as they course anteriorly from the trunk to the lower extremity. This structure demarcates the superior border of the femoral triangle.

Insertion

the point of attachment of a tendon or ligament onto the skeleton or other part of the body.

Internal Oblique

is the intermediate muscle of the abdomen, lying just underneath the external oblique and just above (superficial to) the transverse abdominal muscle. First, it acts as an antagonist (opponent) to the diaphragm, helping to reduce the volume of the thoracic (chest) cavity during exhalation. Secondly, its contraction rotates and side-bends the trunk by pulling the rib cage and midline towards the hip and lower back, of the same side. It acts with the external oblique muscle of the opposite side to achieve this torsional movement of the trunk.

Lateral Pterygoid

A muscle whose inferior head has origin from the pterygoid process, and whose superior head has origin from the sphenoid bone, with insertion into the mandible and the articular disk, with nerve supply from the lateral pterygoid branch of the trigeminal nerve, and whose action brings the jaw forward and opens it.

Lateral Rectus

is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of six extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye (abduction in this case) and the only muscle innervated by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI. Its function is to bring the pupil away from the midline of the body. It is tested clinically by asking the patient to look laterally.

Latissimus Dorsi

meaning 'broadest muscle of the back is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region.

Ligaments

These are cable-like structures, which hold your bones together and allow you to walk and move without falling apart. They are flexible, but they do not stretch very far.

Lower Extremity

including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.

Masseter Muscle

is one of the muscles of mastication. It is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two parts, superficial and deep.

Mediastinum

This is the "middle" section of the chest cavity. The chest cavity contains the left and right lungs, which lie on either side of the heart. The heart is contained in the portion of the chest known as the mediastinum. The mediastinum is bordered by the thoracic inlet (where the organs of the neck enter the chest) on top, by the diaphragm on the bottom, the sternum (breastbone) in front, and the vertebral column (backbone) to the rear. The mediastinum is artificially divided into the anterior, middle and posterior sections. The mediastinum contains all of the chest organs except the lungs. Organs located in the mediastinum include the heart, the aorta, the thymus gland, the chest portion of the trachea, the esophagus, lymph nodes and important nerves.

Mescencephalon

The mesencephalon or midbrain is the portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain.

Muscle Tissue

Muscle is a very specialized tissue that has both the ability to contract and the ability to conduct electrical impulses. Muscles are classified both functionally as either voluntary or involuntary and structurally as either striated or smooth. From this, there emerges three types of muscles: smooth involuntary (smooth) muscle, striated voluntary (skeletal) muscle and striated involuntary (cardiac) muscle. The names in the brackets are the common names given to the particular classification of muscle.

Myology

is the specialized study of muscles and muscle tissue.

Myocardium

the middle, or muscle, layer of the heart.

Nephron

eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure, controls levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulates blood pH.

Nervous Tissue

is specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus. as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of specialized nerve cells called neurons.

Neuron

a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses.

Orbisularis Oculi

is the sphincter muscle in the face that closes the eyelids.

Orbisularis Oris

is the sphincter muscle around the mouth. It is also one of the muscles used in the playing of all brass instruments and some woodwind instruments. This muscle closes the mouth and puckers the lips when it contracts.

Origin

is the part of the body, usually a bone, where the muscle attaches, and does not move when the muscle contracts.

Osteocyte

are the main cells in bones tissue. They are mature and help maintain bone tissue's daily metabolism by exchange of nutrients and waste with the blood. They don't undergo cell division.

Osteology

the scientific study of bones.

Pectoralis Major

is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the body. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female.

Periosteum

is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones,[1] except at the joints of long bones. Periosteum is divided into an outer "fibrous layer" and inner "cambium layer" (or "osteogenic layer").

Phrenic Muscle

diaphragm.

Platysma

is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid. It is a broad sheet arising from the fascia covering the upper parts of the pectoralis major and deltoid; its fibers cross the clavicle, and proceed obliquely upward and medially along the side of the neck.

Popliteal Artery

is defined as the extension of the "superficial" femoral artery after passing through the adductor canal and adductor hiatus above the knee. The termination of the popliteal artery is its bifurcation into the anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery. The popliteal artery, through numerous smaller branches, supplies blood to the knee joint and muscles in the thigh and calf. It is accompanied, along its length, by the popliteal vein.

Posterior Auricular Artery

is a small artery and arises from the external carotid artery, above the Digastric muscle and Stylohyoid muscle, opposite the apex of the styloid process. The posterior auricular artery supplies blood to the scalp posterior to the auricle and to the auricle itself.

Posterior Tibial Artery

of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the posterior tibial vein, along its course.

Pronator

pronator teres is a muscle of the human body (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the pronator quadratus muscle, serves to pronate the forearm (turning it so the palm faces posteriorly).

Psoas Major Muscle

The psoas major is a long fusiform muscle placed on the side of the thoracic region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis. It joins the iliacus muscle to form the iliopsoas.

Psoas Minor Muscle

The psoas minor is a long, slender skeletal muscle which, when present, is located in front of the psoas major muscle. This muscle does not exist in about half the population.

Quadratus Labii Superioris

The levator labii superioris (or quadratus labii superioris) is a muscle of the human body used in facial expression. It is a broad sheet, the origin of which extends from the side of the nose to the zygomatic bone.

Quadriceps Femoris

The quadriceps femoris (Latin for "four-headed [muscle] of the femur"), also called simply the quadriceps, quadriceps extensor, quads, is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh. It is the great extensor muscle of the knee, forming a large fleshy mass which covers the front and sides of the femur. It is the strongest and leanest muscle in the human body.

Radial Artery

is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm. The radial artery arises from the bifurcation of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. It runs distally on the anterior part of the forearm.

Rectus Abdominis

The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen. There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba (white line). It extends from the pubic symphysis/pubic crest inferiorly to the xiphisternum/xiphoid process and lower costal cartilages (5-7) superiorly.

Renal Arteries

normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. The renal arteries carry a large portion of total blood flow to the kidneys. Up to a third of total cardiac output can pass through the renal arteries to be filtered by the kidneys.

Right Atrium (right auricle)

It receives deoxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus, and pumps it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.

Right ventricle

is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk.

Risorius (false smile)

The risorius arises in the fascia over the parotid gland and, passing horizontally forward, superficial to the platysma, inserts onto the skin at the angle of the mouth. The risorius retracts the angle of the mouth to produce a smile, albeit an insincere-looking one that does not involve the skin around the eyes.

Sacrospinalis

a muscle that extends the length of the back and neck, that arises from the iliac crest, the sacrum, and the lumbar and two lower thoracic vertebrae, and that splits in the upper lumbar region into three divisions of which the lateral is made up of the three iliocostalis muscles, the intermediate is made up of the three longissimus muscles, and the medial is made up of the three spinalis muscles—called also erector spinae.

Sartorius Muscle

the longest muscle in the human body - is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. Its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle.

Soleus

is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf). It runs from just below the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing and walking. It is closely connected to the gastrocnemius muscle. The soleus is located in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg.

Sternocleidomastoid

also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the anterior portion of the neck. It acts to flex and rotate the head. It is given the name sternocleidomastoid because it originates at the manubrium of the sternum (sterno-) and the clavicle (cleido-), and has an insertion at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull.

Subclavian Arteries

the subclavian arteries are two major arteries of the upper thorax (chest), below the clavicle (collar bone). They receive blood from the top (arch) of the aorta. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax.

Left Subclavian Artery

On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the arch of aorta.

Right Subclavian Artery

the subclavian arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery (trunk) when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery. The usual branches of the subclavian on both sides of the body are the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery, the thyrocervical trunk, the costocervical trunk and the dorsal scapular artery. The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib.

Supinator

is a broad muscle, curved around the upper third of the radius.

Syndesmology

the anatomy of the ligaments of the body; the science or study of ligaments.

Tendons (sinew)

is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments and fasciae as they are all made of collagen except that ligaments join one bone to another bone, and fascia connect muscles to other muscles. Tendons and muscles work together and can only exert a pulling force.

Transversus

also known as the transversalis muscle and transverse abdominal muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle. It is thought to be a major muscle of the functional core of the human body; although some argue that due to its small cross-sectional area, it cannot generate the forces required to be a prime core stabilizer.

Trapezius

is a large superficial muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae and laterally to the spine of the scapula (shoulder blade). Its functions are to move the scapulae and support the arm.

Vastus Lateralis

the largest part of the Quadriceps femoris.

Extensor / Extension

A muscle that stretches out a body part

Myofiber

A single muscle fiber.

Sphincter

a structure, usually a circular muscle, that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning. orbicularis oculi muscle orbicularis oris muscle.

Tendons

attaches muscles to bones.

Flexor/Flexion

muscles that bend body parts.

Abductor/Abduction

Muscles that pull a body part away from the median plane.

Latissimus Dorsi

A broad muscle of the lower back.

Orbicularis Oculi

circular muscle of the eye

Latissimus Dorsi

Large muscle of the upper back.

Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle

Lateral muscle of the forearm.

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle

Medial muscle of the forearm.

Name a muscle located in the cervical region of the body

Sternocleidomastoid, Platysma, and the Digastricus

Name a muscle located on the medial aspect of the thigh

Gracilis and the adductor group

Name a muscle of mastication

Masseter, Temporal, Lateral Pterygoid, Medial Pterygoid

Name a muscle of the anterior thigh

Sartorius, Quadriceps Femoris, Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius.

Name a muscle of the chest

Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior

Name a muscle of the thigh

Sartorius, Quadriceps Femoris, Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius, Gracilis, Adductor Longus, Adductor Brevis, Adductor Magnus, Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus

Name a posterior muscle of the abdomen

Psoas Major, Psoas Minor, Iliacus

Name a sphincter muscle of the mouth

Orbicularis Oris - Pucker up

Name the antero-lateral muscle of the abdomen

Outer-most Layer - External Oblique, Middle Layer - Internal Oblique, Inner-most Layer - Transverse

Name the antero-medial muscle of the abdomen

Rectus Abdominis, Pyramidalis, Linea Alba (NOT a muscle)

On what basis does the deltoideus muscle receive its name

it is in the shape of the Greek letter Delta (triangle).

Sartorius muscle

lateral border of the femoral triangle

Muscles of Mastication (Chewing)

the masseter

adductor longus muscle

medial border of the femoral triangle.

epicranius

the occipitofrontalis muscle.

Insertion

The relatively movable attachment of a muscle.

Inguinal Ligament

The superior border of the femoral triangle.

Rotation

The turning of a body part on an axis

Diaphragm - phrenic muscle

The wall that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

Popliteal Artery

The blood vessel begins at the opening of the adductor magnus muscle.

Muscular Tissue

The tissue includes the variations called striated, smooth and cardiac.

Where is the soleus muscle located?

Posterior Leg

Mediastinum

The space between the lungs which houses the heart and larger blood vessels

Axillary

The blood vessel that begins at the lateral border of the first rib and terminates as it passes by the tendon of the teres major muscle

Anterior or Posterior Tibial

a bifurcation of the popliteal artery

Abdominal Aorta

The section of the aorta gives rise to the inferior phrenic and celiac trunk arteries

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