Anatomy & Physiology
|What describes the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?||The corpus luteum produces rising levels of progesterone|
|Order of the events that occur during hemostasis?||1.Platelets release serotonin causing spasms in blood vessels.|
2.Platelets plug forms in the damaged area.
3.Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin.
4.Thrombin joins fibrinogen molecules into long threads of fibrin.
5.A mesh of fibrin threads traps red blood cells forming a clot.
6.Clot retracts and the edges of the blood vessel are pulled closer together.
|How does the sympathetic autonomic nervous system react to a stressful situation?||Increases heart-rate|
|Match each functio with the type of cell that performs that function.||Propagates an action potential that will lead to stimulation of a central nervous system interneuron / sensory (afferent) neuron.|
propagates an action potential that will lead to stimulation of a skeletal muscle / Motor (efferent( neuron.
helps to protect neurons from harmful chemicals in the blood / astrocytes
protects nerve cells in the peripheral nervus system by producing a myelin sheath / Schwann cells
Disposes of dead brain cells and bacteria / microglia
protects and cusions nerve fibers found in the pns/ sattelite cells.
|Which statement deescribes how a neuron ensures a normal unidirectional flow of action potential?||Axons carry impulses away from the cell body.|
|Parts of a patellar reflex?|| Sensory neuron, |
quadriceps muscle of thigh
|Which are strutural componentsof the pns?|| 1. cranial nerves|
2. spinal nerves
3. sensory fibers
|List the events that restore membrane charge and ionic concentration following an action potential in order from first to last||1. potassium channels begin to open|
2. The membranes potassium permeability increases while sodium permeability decreases.
3. Potassium ions rapidly diffuse out of the neuron into tissue fluid.
4. The membrane repolarizes with an outflow of positive ions.
5. The original extracellular and intracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions are reestablished by the sodium potassium pump.
|Match each body part with corresponding innervating system|| gastrocnemius muscle = somatic|
urinary bladder = autonomic
triceps muscle = somatic
deltoid muscle = somatic
diaphragm = somatic
cardiac muscle = autonomic
|What are the critical functions of the cerebellum?|| Allowing for smooth and coordinated body movements|
controlling balance and equilibrium
monitering body position and tension in various body [arts
|How does the blood-brain barrier protect the brain?|| prevents most drugs from entering the brain|
prevents waste products from entering the brain
|Mastch each plasma or formed element of blood with the appropriate group?|| monocytes-agranulocytes|
|match each function with the blood component that performs the function|| Form blood clots = platelets|
Act as a solvent for carrying other substances = plasma
Carry hemoglobin-bound oxygen = erythocytes
Defend against disease = Leukocytes
Buffer PH = plasma
|What are characteristics of blood cell development?|| 1. Development occurs in the red bone marrow|
2. control of red blood cellproduction is based on the ability to meet oxygen demand.
|Type A blood cells are accidentally given to a patient with type B blood during the patient's first blood transfusion. What reaction is the likely consequence from this transfusion?||Anti-B antibodies in the donor's plasma cause agglutination of the patients's red blood cells.|
|How does the circulatory system hell maintain a constant ph in extracellular fluids?||Blood transports carbon diozide away from its cellular sources to be exhaled through the lungs.|
|How do the anatomical structures of the heart facilitate the movement of blood?|| 1. The sinoatrial node coordinates cardiac contractions, ensuring that the atria contract before the ventricles|
2. Intact heart valves allow blood to flow in only one direction
|Which are characteristics of the early diastolic period of the cardiac cycle?|| 1. ventricular pressure drops and teh ventricles begin to fill with blood.|
2. Semilunar valves close to prevent backflow.
3. Atrioventricular valves open
|Blood has entered the superior vena cava. trace the path of a blood droplet from the first to last structure it passes through from the superior vena cava to the lungs.|| 1.Right atrium|
3. Right ventricle
4. Pulmonary valve
5. Pulmoary arteries
|Identify the structures that expired air passes through from first to last as it exits the lungs?|| 1.Alveolus|
6. Main bronchi
|What are functions of the larynx?|| 1.Direct air and food into the proper channels|
2. play a najor role in speech production
3.Protect the superior opening of the pharynx
|How does oxygen move from the alveoli into the blood?|| 1. Crosses simple squamous cells of the alveolar and capillary walls|
2.Diffuses from the air in the alveoli into the blood.
|How do the muscles responsible for inspiration change the intrathoracic volume?||Contractio increases the volume.|
|Classify each description as an element of either internal or external respiration?|| Oxygen is released from hemoglobin=internal respiration|
gases are exchanged in alveoli=internal respiration
carbon diozide moves from the alveoli into the bronchioles is external respiration
gases are exchanged between tissue and blood =internal
carbondioxide is collected in the blood=external
|Which are considered non-respiratory air movements?|| sneeze|
|Which statement correctly describe epithelial membranes?|| 1. mucous membranes line body cavities which open to the outside.|
2. Serous membranes occur in pairs
3. Synovial membranes secrete thin, clear serous fluid.
|What appendages of the skin play a role in thernoregulation?|| 1. Eccrine glands|
2. Sweat glands
|What is a function of bones?||Protect organs|
|A mother with anti-RH+ antibodies gives birth to her second child. The baby is born with Hemolytic Disease of the newborn resultin in anemia. Why did this complication occur?||The mother was Rh-, and the fetus wasf Rh+|
|Match each structural characteristic with the blood vessel it describes|| Sphincter - capillaries|
thickest tunica media in walls - arteries
one-cell layer thick walls -capillaries
skeletal muscle pump - veins
largest lumen -arteries
|match each organ or structure with the major artery responsible for its blood supply.|| liver - common hepatic|
head - carotid
legs - fermoral
kidney - renal
|How does bone development respond when osteoclasts are stimulated more than osteoblasts?||Bone is degraded faster than it is built.|
|classify each axial skeletal bone as being found in either the head or the neck?|| sphenoid - head|
parietal - head
axis (c2) - neck
occipital - head
|match each description with the appropriate muscle tissue type.||long cylindrical cells that are multinucleate and straited is skeltal|
located in the walls of heart is cardiac
attached to bones is skeletal
cells under voluntary control is skeletal
located in the walls of hollow visceral organs is smooth
fusiform, uninucleate cells is smooth
Branching chains of cells that are uninucleate and striated is skeletal
|What structure is part of the lymphatic system?||Tonsils|
|how does the lymphatic system transport lymph back into the bloodstream|| 1.Lymph moves through large and small vessels towards the heart.|
2. The right lymphatic duct empties its content directly to the subclavian vein.
3. The thoracic duct delivers lymph into the venues system
|Match each anatomic location to the associated lymph node that drains it.|| left leg - inguinal node|
shoulder - axillary node
right hand - axillary node
face cervicle node
groin - inguinal node
|Ho do the organs of the lymphatic system prevent and respond to bacterial infections?|| 1.Peyers patches contain macrophages that capture and destroy bacteria.|
2. Tonsils trap and remove bacteria entering the pharynx.
3. Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (malt) protects the upper-respiratory and digestive tracts fro foreign bacteria
|which processes are controlled by hormonal regulation?|| 1.basal metabolic rate|
2. calcium level in the blood
3. skeletal muscle growth
|which describe mechanisms of hormone action|| 1.attaching to a receptor on or in the target cell|
2.affecting specific target tissues or target organs
3.increasing or decreasing the rate of a metabolic process
|How does the pancreas regulate the netabolisn of glucose?|| 1. by producing glucagon, which raises blood glucose levels|
2. by producing insulin, which is necessary for glucose uptake
|Match each hormone with it corresponding function||1.Luteinizing hormone (LH) Triggers ovulation of teh egg from the ovaries|
2.prolactin (PRL) stimulates productio nofmilk in the breasts
3.Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) regulates the activity of teh adrenal cortex
4.growth hormone (GH) increase size and multiply
5. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Inhibits urine production, increases blood pressure
|A patient with diabetes mellitus has low insulin levels due to an inability to produce sufficient insulin. What are the results of these low insulin levels?|| 1. Blood glucose will increase|
2.Glucose will remain outside of cells.
|Which accurately describe the negative feedback mechanism?|| 1.Increased hormone levels inhibit hormone release.|
2. releasin ghormones in the hypothalamus are decreased as hormone levels in the blood increase
3. hormone secretion can be controlled by internal stimuli
|match each organ with the abdominopelvic quadrant i nwhich it is normally found|| liver-right upper quadrant|
gall bladder - right upper quadrant
stomach left upper quadrant
sigmoid colon - left lower quadrant
appendix right lowet quadrant
|Which accurately describe the functions that differentiate chenical digestion and mechanical digestion?||1.chemical digestion breaks apart molecules, while mechanical digestion breaks larger pieces of food into smaller ones.|
2. chemical digestio involves pancreatic enzymes, while mechanical digestion involves segmentation.
3. chenical digestio ninvolves hydrolysis reactions, and mechanical digestio involves the movement of food by cilia.
|Which digestive organs may be malfunctioning in an individual having difficulty digesting proteins?|| Gall bladder|
|what tissues are continuous with the walls of the alimentary canals serosa?||parietal peritoneum and mesentery|
|How does the salivary gland facilitate swallowing food?|| 1.bolus makes chewing and swallowing easier|
2.salivary amylase helps break down starch
3. mucus fro saliva helps to form a bolus
4.saliva lubricates the mouth
5.salivary amylase bigins dissolving food in the mouth
|Which is a characteristic of teh renal hilus?||Medial indentation where vessels enter and exit the kidney|
|How do nephrons in kidneys facilitate urine formation?|| 1. Glomeruli filter fluid out of the blood|
2.Useful substances from filtrate are reabsorbed beginning in proximal tubule.
|How is backflow ofurine prevented?||Valve-like folds in the bladder prevent urine from flowing back into urethra|
|What is the role of the hepatic portal system?||Drains the digestive orglans, spleen and pancreas and directs blood to the liver.|
|What structure produces the majority of fluid volume in semen?||seminal vesicles|
|Put the structures sperm encoutners in order as it travels to the body's exterior from first to last.|| 1.seminfierous tubules|
2. Rete testis
|Which are considered male secondary sex characteristics|| 1.enlargementof skeletal muscles|
2.deepening of the voice
|Which represent the order of structures an ova encoutners from the ovary to the uterus?||ovary-fimbriae-infundibulum-fallopiantube-uterus|
|which characteristics are true of spermatogenesis?|| 1. The entire process takes between 64 and 72 days|
2.Following puberty, it continues throughout life
The final product is mobile (self propelled)
|Which describes the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle||The corpus luteum produces rising levels of progesterone|
|match each process with the hormone responsible for stimulating it.|| Increase in size and activity of endometrial glands is progesterone.|
Onset of ovulation is Luteininzing
Development of external genitalia is estrogen
Enlargement of breasts is estrogen
widening of pelvis is estrogen
enlargement of uterus and uterine tubes is estrogen
|A patients skin became very dry and cracked aroudn the same time the patient caught a cold?|| 1. Dry skin is seen during cold weather when the largest number of contagious viruses is active|
2. Eccrine glands have not been producing enoug fluid, preventing defense mechanisns from working properly.
3. Lack of chemical secretions from sebaceous glands allows viruses to enter the body.
|How does red bone marrow produce blood cells that function in the body's innume response?||hemocytoblasts gives rise to white blood cells|
|How do white blood cells help protect the body against pathogens?|| Lymphocytes play an imprtant role in the production of antibodies|
T lynphocytes fight tumors and viruses and activate B lynphocytes
|Classify each immune response as either antibody-mediated or cell-mediated||Creates immunity specific to an antegen=antibody-mediated response|
Activates uponexposure to an infected cell=cell mediated response
Activates upon exposure to an extracellular antigen=antibody-mediated response
Can be active or passive imunity=cell mediated response
Can have primary and secondary responses= antibody mediated response
Is effective against toxins = cell mediated
|How do the components of the lymphatic system protect the body from disease?|| 1Force lymph through lymph nodes to be screened by cells of the immune system|
2. Trap and remove bacteria entering the throat
3. Develop innumocompetent T cells
|What are the roles of teh homeostatic control system?|| 1.Relays information to and from the control center.|
2.monitors and responds to changes in the environment
|Which accurately identifies how the lynphatic system interacts with other systemsof the body?|| 1.Lynph nodes contain lynphocytes that are inportant modulators of the immune system.|
2.Lynphatic vessels pick up plasma fluids that have leaked from the vascular system
3.The spleen destroys aged red blood cells and removes debris from the blood.
|Which show the correct sequence of interactions between the nervous system and endocrine systems?|| 1.The parasympathetic nervous system causes release of epinephrine to increase skin pigmentation.|
2.Stretching of the uterus stimulates release of oxytocin from the pituitary, which causes contractions
|A person is resting after eating a big meal. Why is such rest important to the digestive system?||Increased digestion during rest is a result of parasympathetic nervous system activity.|
|How do the kidneys regulate body systems?|| 1.maintain a proper water salt balance in the bloodstream|
2.adjust blood pressure through the control of fluid balance
3.release erthropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
|How do the digestive and cardiovascular systems provide nutrients to cells?|| 1.Food is broken into the smallest components by enzymes in the digestive system and delivered to cells by the cardiovascular system.|
2.Blood, carrying absorbed nutrients from the digestive system, is delivered to cells of the body by the cardiovascular system.
|Match each function with the corresponding waste removal process.|| removal of urine from the bladder/micturition|
removal of ammonia from the cells/systemic circulation
removal of concentrated carbondioxide from the blood/respiratory expiration
removal of nitrogen from the blood/respiratory expiration
removal of urea from the blood/renal filtration
|which describe how nutrients and gases enter or leave the capillaries?|| 1.Fluid through fenestrated capillaries|
2.Carbon diozide through concentration gradient
3.lipid-soluble substances throgh passive diffusion
|Which descriptions summarize the changes and biological activity of a zygote after fertilization but before implantation?|| 1.dependence on secretions of teh endometrial glands for metabolic needs.|
2development into a fluid-filled ball of approximately 100 cells
3. Cleavage and free flotationin the cavity of the uterus
|How is the gastrintestinal systemof a woman affected by pregnancy?|| 1.decrease i nmotility of digestive tract causes constipation.|
2.increased production of estrogen and progesterone causes morning sickness.
|What happens as uterine contractions become stronger?||More oxytocin is relesed in a positive feedback mechanism.|
|What central nervous system structure forms late in fetal development and is necessary for maintaing body temperature?||Hypothalamus|
|What are some processes that occur in the nervous system during childhood?|| 1.The nervous system continues to mature through myelination.|
2.few new neurons form after birth.
3.the brain reaches its maximum weight
|Which body system changes take place during adolescence?|| 1.musculoskeletal system grows at an increased rate.|
2.androgens activate oil glands in the skin
3.hypothalamus regulates the release of reproductive hormones
|How can aging affect the urinary system?|| 1. increased occurrence of nocturia|
2. altherosclerotic damage to kidneys
3.decreased nephron efficiency
|How does altherosclerosis impact the functioning of the cardiovascular system?|| 1.causes the arterial wall to fray|
2.may cause hypertension
3.increases risk of heart attack
|Understanding the quality of individuals bone structure can help to explain why they get the types of fractures that they do. Match the bone quality with the age group most likely to have that bone quality.|| brittle bone/adult|
fully ossified bone/adult
bone with active growth plates/child
|classify each landmark on the body as either anterior or posterior|| umbilical/anterior|
|which list contains structures anterior and superficial to the heart.||Areola, sternu, and pectoral muscles|
|match each description with the body plane it descibes||1.a cut dividing the body into uneven right and left sides is sagital.|
2. A horizontal cut dividing the body into superior and inferior parts is transverse plane
3.A cross-sectional cut is transverse plane
4. A cut dividing the body into even right andleft sides is midsagital
5.A cut dividing teh body into anterior and posterior sections is frontal.
|What are some differences between the ventral and dorsal body cavities?|| The dorsal cavity holds the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity.|
The ventral cavity is anterior to the dorsal cavity
the dorsal cavity is smaller than the ventral cavity
the ventral cavity contains structures that are inferior to the dorsal cavity.