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Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adult's body

60%

Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult male's body

4%

Insensible fluid loss refers to water loss through

perspiration and experation

When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the

interstitial compartment into the blood

What would a deficit of plasma proteins likely cause

decreased osmotic pressure

What would cause edema

increased capillary permeability

What would be related to an elevated hematocrit

fluid deficit

What is a typical sign of dehydration

rough oral mucosa

What is the term for a combination of decreased circulating blood volume and excess fluid in a body cavity

third-spacing

Which of the following is a characteristic of sodium ion

it is a cation

What is a common cause of hyponatremia

excessive sweating

What do both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia cause

cardiac arrhythmias

What does increased parathyroid hormones cause

increased absorption of calcium from the digestive tract

What does hypocalcemia lead to

3,4

What causes tetany

increased permeability of nerve membranes

In which of the following is phosphate ion not a major component

blood clotting

Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH

7.4

When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? It

decreases

What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance

kidneys

Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range

the ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate must be 1:20

Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations

increased carbonic acid

What is likely to cause metabolic acidosis

prolonged diarrhea

What would a serum pH of 7.33 in a patient with kidney disease indicate

metabolic acidosis

Which serum value indicates decompensated metabolic acidosis

pH is below normal range

When excessive lactic acid accumulates in the body, serum

bicarbonate ion levels decrease

What does acidosis cause

CNS depression and drowsiness

Compensation in the body for dehydration would include

increased ADH

Emphysema impairs expiration causing the acid-base imbalance

respiratory acidosis

In patients with emphysema and impaired expiration, effective compensation for the acid-base imbalance, would be

decreased urine pH and increased serum bicarbonate

An anxiety attack often causes hyperventilation leading to

decreased pCO2

Young infants are more vulnerable to serious dehydration because

limited renal compensation

Compensation for respiratory system depression due to anesthesia and sedation would be

1,2

Metabolic acidosis leads to

hyperkalemia

Strenuous physical exercise on a hot day is likely to result in

hypovolemia

Which of the following is a manifestation of respiratory alkalosis

seizures

What is an arrangement of the chromosomes from an individuals cell, organized in pairs in descending order or size, called

a karyotype

What is the probability of two parents, both carriers of a defective recessive gene, producing a homozygous child (with each pregnancy)

25%

Down syndrome is an example of a/an

chromosomal disorder

What is an example of a multifactorial congenital disorder

cleft lip and palate

Which of the following statements regarding Down Syndrome is TRUE

the typical physical characteristics are present at birth

The laboratory practice of changing DNA sequences in microorganisms is called

genetic engineering

Developmental disorders can result from all the following EXCEPT

folic acid

Which of the following can easily pass through the placental barrier

all of the above

The most invasive prenatal screening test for fetal abnormalities is

amniocentesis

Blood tests are primarily performed on neonates in order to

commence immediate treatment for metabolic abnormalities

What is a lateral curvature of the spine called

scoliosis

What is/are common local signs of osteomyelitis

a red, swollen area, pain increasing with movement

Which of the following might fluid and electrolyte deficits cause in a patient with anorexia nervosa

cardiac arrhythmias

Acne vulgaris can best be described as an infection involving the

sebaceous glands and hair follicles

Which statement applies to testicular cancer

it often develops from untreated, undescended testes

Which of the following would confirm reduced normal linear growth during adolescence

abnormally thin epiphyseal plate in X-ray

Three factors common to metabolic syndrome include

presence of significant abdominal fat mass, changes in glucose metabolism and changes in lipoprotein metabolism

Hypocalcemia causes weak cardiac contractions because

insufficient calcium ions are available for muscle contraction

Which of the following is the primary control of serum Na+ levels

aldosterone

Which statements apply to atrial naturetic peptide

1,3

The effect of increased sodium concentration in the blood

increased blood volume

Aldosterone helps to regulate

sodium

Common effects of the expanding uterus during pregnancy include all the following EXCEPT

abdominal pain

What is the usual cause of hemolysis of fetal erythrocytes during pregnancy

the mothers blood is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive

Adolescent pregnancy is often considered high risk because of

all the above are correct

The term primigravida refers to

a women who is pregnant for the first time

Diagnosis of pregnancy is confirmed through elevated serum levels of

hCG

Which of the following statements apply to eclampsia

blood pressure is very high and seizures may occur

Place the following statements regarding Rh incompatibility in the correct sequence

3,5,6,1,4

What is the usual time period between the first day of the last menstrual and the time of birth

the gestation period

Which of the following indicates development of pregnancy-induced hypertension

persistent blood pressure measuring above 140/90

What is the likely cause of painless, bright red, vaginal bleeding during the last trimester

placenta previa

Which of the following is a serious complication of abruptio placentae indicated by low serum levels of clotting factors

DIC- disseminated intravascular coagulation

During which time period do teratogens cause major developmental damage to organs

first 2 months

Edema and congestion normally develop in many tissues during pregnancy due to

increased blood volume

gestational diabetes in the mother usually results in

delivery of high birth weight infant

Predisposing factors to osteoporosis in older women include all of the following EXCEPT

decreased parathyroid horomone

Vision in the elderly may be impaired when the lens of the eye becomes larger and less elastic, resulting in

presbyopia

Senescence refers to the period of the time when

cell death exceeds cell replacement

Which of the following does NOT contribute to the increasing lifespan of the general population

reduced cognitive and social activities

Recommendations to reduce the risk factors and the progression of osteoporosis with aging include

maintaining walking and weight-bearing exercise

With advancing age, the major change in the cardiovascular system involves

vascular degeneration leading to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis

Which of the following may develop in an elderly patient who has several medical problems and is markedly obese

a,b,c

Which of the following frequently causes decubitus ulcers

inadequate circulation at pressure points

What is a major factor predisposing to pulmonary infection in immobilized patients

stasis of secretions in the lungs

Which of the following is/are common effect(s) of prolonged immobility in children

a,b,c

Prolonged immobility may predispose to_________in the kidneys

any of the above

The major problem associated with immobility and the gastrointestinal tract is

constipation

Which of the following apply to orthostatic hypotension associated with prolonged immobility

a,b

Lung expansion in the elderly may be reduced because of decreased

1,2,4
tissue elasticity
rib mobility
skeletal muscle strength

What is a major factor leading to increased occurance of cancer in the elderly

cummulative exposure to carcinogens

All of the following changes are associated with aging EXCEPT

decreased secretion of hormones

Theories about the causes of aging include

apoptosis wear and tear
altered protein (amyloid) accummulation
degenerative changes in collagen or elastin fibers

The term given to the change that occurs in women at around age 50 with the cessation of menstuaral cycle is

menopause

All are phsiological changes that occur with aging EXCEPT

reduced bladder capacity and incomplete bladder emptying

Which of the following factors lead to delayed wound healing in the elderly

1. reduced rate mitosis
2. inadequate circulation
3. high risk of infection

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