← Chapter 8 - 8.1 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All metabolism The sum of chemical reactions that occur within an organism metabolic pathway A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathways) catabolic pathway a metabolic process that breaks down complex molecules into simpler compounds; example = cellular respiration because it breaks glucose into carbon dioxide and water; the energy that is stored becomes available to do work within the cell anabolic pathway A metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from simpler compounds. bioenergetics Study of how energy flows through organisms First law of thermodynamics energy is conserved. It is neither created nor destroyed underneath normal conditions. second law of thermodynamics Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe open systems systems that interact with their environment. closed systems systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment. entropy A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S. spontaneous processes When a process can occur on its own without outside help (an input of energy), it increases the entropy of the universe. It doesn't mean quickly. non-spontaneous processes A process that requires a continuous input of energy in order to occur.