what was the percentage in increase of the population of america from 6000 in 1630 to 2.5 million in 1775?
what were the three main social classes in Colonial America and who would be in it?
upper(plantation owners, large landholders, wealthy merchants, puritan clergyman and government officials, lawyers and docters) middle(independent farmers, skilled workers, shopkeepers and other tradespeople) lower(indentured servants and slaves)
a person who agreed by signing a document called indenture to work a certain number of years in exchange for passage to america
percentage of blacks (africans) in the colonies
about 20% of the population
how long has slavery been around in the colonies that will become the united states?
since 1619 in Jamestown
how many of us have slavery in our past?
who actually caught most of the african slaves?
the first european nation to abolish slavery and the year they did it
Great Britain, 1807
what is the "Juneteenth" in terms of holidays?
it's the oldest national celebration commemorating the end of slavery and the biggest holiday in texas
who wrote "Amazing Grace"? what was his occupation?
John Newton. He was a slave ship captain, then became a minister.
what former president successfully defended the leaders of the amistad slave revolt in court?
John Quincy Adams
tell of Cinque and what happened to him.
he was a kidnapped african aboard the amistad who gathered a few other slaves and rebelled against the captain and cook and tried to steer towards africa, but got taken back captive by the washington and put on trial in america. they were acquitted, and cinque got sent back home to africa, where he joined a missionary and died years later.
why would slaveowners hire Irishmen to do the dangerous work?
the irish were expendable.
what was a "Praying Indian"?
a native american who had converted to christianity.
does the above quote seem to be a christian viewpoint that would be held today?(see packet)
no, it is not
do people sometimes use religion to justify their own goals?
yes, they do. people called religious zealots do it alot (i.e. Ned Flanders)
what were three main disadvantages that the native americans faced in comparison with the colonists?
1. they didn't understand land ownership
2. they didn't understand the industry
3. they were weakened by diseases
what was so significant about king philip's war in terms of america's wars? what word was stricken from the language?
by proportion, it was the costliest war in terms of life. chief was stricken from the language.
why was Metacomet right to be upset with the english?
someone died on the reservation, and the colonial police came and arrested 3 indians, put them on trial, and executed them
what percentage of american colonists were farmers?
tell of the difference in agriculture between new england, the middle colonies, and the southern colonies
new england: had a difficult time due to unusable soil
middle colonies: mostly wheat, oats, barley, rye and corn, giving them the name the bread basket of america
southern colonies: mostly tobacco, with some producing indigo and rice too
explain the role of apprentices.
to train in and learn a certain trade and become a master craftsman of the trade, also a way of lessening the burden of food and such on the family
what is a cash crop? the book talks of cash crops in the south - what were they? which famous later one was missing?
a crop that is grown for profit
tobacco, indigo, and rice. cotton.
how did the south's reliance on cotton cause it problems similar to spain's reliance on gold
they solely relied on it for wealth, and when general sherman burned down everything, they lost all of their cotton
major industries of the colonies
south: agriculture, pine forest products
north: agriculture, textile, shipbuilding
new england: fishing, textile, rum
what economic theory did england use to control trade with the colonies?
makes large metal objects
women's clothes made by a man
explain triangular trade- how did it work?
a historical term that indicated trade among three ports or regions
a form of government where a god or deity is recognized as the state's higher forms of government
why did religious toleration grow?
reference of the great awakening, more people coming from different religions made puritanism weak
a colony in which someone is given land and that person governs it.
created by royalty, ruled by royalty
a charter is given to someone or a group, and that person or group governs the colony
how did england's do salutary neglect on the americas encouraging democracy?
they weren't very strict in governing the americas and they let them do their own thing
how did the colonial militia differ from the royal army of great britain in terms of how it selected its leaders?
colonial militia was picked on ability. royal army was selected on nobility
who was allowed to vote in the colonies?
white male landowners aged 28 and up and who were religious
(what is) direct democracy? (explain) how a town meeting worked?
a form of democracy where royalty sits among the assemble of all citizens. it would emphasize consensus over majority rule.
briefly describe the education system of colonial america, and talk of harvard.
schools were very limited in colonial america and wealthy families either had tutors or sent their children to enlgand. harvard was created as a puritan college for priests-in-training
why were books and libraries so hard to come by in colonial america?
you are a puritan, so you don't read or else you'll be doing devil work
talk of colonial life in terms of housing
space was cleared and trees were felled to construct a house. they contained more than one room or were more than one story in height.
talk of colonial life in terms of food
food was cooked in massive fireplaces. spits were common and fish, venison, and other meats were roasted on them.
talk of colonial life in terms of amusements
there was little time for amusement, as men labored all day, but afterward, there was dancing, hunting, etc. (if you were a puritan, you didn't do any of this because it was idle amusement)
Why did the Puritans disapprove of "idle amusement"?
they believed it was devil work
name a blue law that is still in effect in Georgia.
alcohol sales are prohibited on Sundays, the christian day of worship.
John Peter Zenger
he printed james alexander's words attacking Gov. Cosby and that got him in trouble.
a very mean and cruel tyrant that governed New York
Rip Van Dam
former governor of New York, was asked by Cosby to hand over half of his salary. He refused, sparking Cosby' wrath.
Zenger's defense lawyer, he encouraged the jury to use "Jury Nullification"
What was the main gist of the case?
that Zenger's freedom of speech and press was being violated
when the jury decides that a law is unfair in a case and revokes it for that case
the absolutist approach
the amendment means exactly what it says
the categorical approach
this would either protect or not protect speech based on a label
the balancing approach
sees the previous two as artificial. every court case should weigh the individual's interes in free expression against the governments interes in restricting the speech in question
briefly describe the witchcraft trials of colonial salem
girls started acting strange by randomly screaming, running under furniture, barking, etc, and they eventually started accusing people
who were the accusers?
a group of girls from a different range of ages, which include ann putnam and betty parris
how were the witches examined?
they were asked the question "are you a witch" over and over, and each time you denied, the accusers would start acting weird until you just gave up or were tortured.
how did your trials go?
they went very bad, no way to be proven innocent.
was there a logical way to safely escape?
no, there wasn't. either way, you were a witch and there was nothing you could do
how many people died as a result of the salem witchcraft trials?
about 25 people
how many witches were hung?
whose wife's accusation led him to finally end the madness?
what is there to admire about Giles Cory?
he stood up to the girls and told them off. this of course got him accused and pressed
what were his last words?
what was spectral evidence?
when somebody says that your specter (spirit) assaulted them, like them saying "somebody bit me"
why is it so hard to defend against the accusations of it?
it's not even real, and everyone believes in it, so how can you say that it didn't happen?
what is mass hysteria?
when a group loses their common sense
the accusation from senator mccarthy that was similar to the "spectral evidence" of the salem trials
communism (you're working for the soviets. everyone was paranoid about what they were going to do)