____ was the first one to use the term "atom" as a building block of matter.
____ studied chemical reactions and made the law of conservation of mass.
Law of conservation of mass
mass of reactants = mass of products, mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
Lavoisier was killed by a ______.
________ took compounds and chemically analyzed them and their composition, making the law of definite proportions.
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
_______ studied multiple compounds that contained the same elements but different amounts of them and made the law of multiple proportions.
law of multiple proportions
if 2 or more different compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
Who made the original atomic theory?
atoms (1) ; identical (2) ; differ (2); subdivided (3); created (3); destroyed (3); whole (4); compounds (4); combined (5); separated (5); rearranged (5)
Original atomic theory:
1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles, called ____.
2. Atoms of a given element are ____ in size, mass, and other properties. Atoms of different elements ___ in size, mass, and other properties.
3. Atoms cannot be ____, ____, or ____.
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple ____-number ratios to form chemical _____.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are ____, _____, or ____.
_____ used the cathode ray tube and found he could make rays bend with a magnet, deciding rays were made of negative particles.
J.J. Thompson's ____ ____ idea about atom arrangment was completely wrong.
______ experimented with oil drops, finding he could make adjustments to negative particles and thus suspend oil drops in air.
Who collected data to give us a charge for electrons?
1.60 X 10^-19 C (C means coulomb)
what is the charge for an electron?
_____ studied particle behavior in electrons, and came up with the idea of energy jumping levels.
Who made Planck's constant?
_____ made a model of electrons in circles orbiting around a positive nucleus.
Louis de Broglie
_____ studied wave patterns of emitted light.
_____ was a theoretical chemist who wrote math calculations and equations, made Quantum Theory, and explained why electrons sometimes act as particles and sometimes as waves.
There are ___ main energy levels.
Lewis Structure only shows ____ electrons.
In orbital notation, the lines under the arrows represent ____.
electron configuration; orbital notation; lewis structure; noble gas configuration
What are the four methods of writing an element's electrons that we learned?
the study of the structure and behavior of the atom and of subatomic particles from the view that all energy comes in tiny, indivisible bundles
basic unit of electromagnetic energy; it characterizes the wave properties of electrons
a unit or quantum of light; a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of the particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol
heisenberg uncertainty principle
the principle that states that determining both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle simultaneously is impossible
the principle that states that the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of the atom and one electron to the lowest energy orbital that is available
the rule that states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin
Pauli exclusion principle
the principle that states that 2 particles of a certain class cannot be in exactly the same energy state
substances that are slightly attracted to a magnetic field due to the presence of unpaired electrons
substances not attracted to a magnetic field (maybe slightly repelled) because all electrons are paired
s, p, d, f
what are the four energy sublevels?
The 7 periods on the periodic table represent 7 ___ ____.
S sublevel can hold __ electron(s), __ orbital(s).
P sublevel holds ___ electrons, requires __ orbitals.
D sublevel holds ___ electrons, requires ___ orbitals.
F sublevel holds __ electrons, requires __ orbitals.
preceding; square brackets
In Noble Gas configuration, the chemical symbol for the ___ noble gas is placed in ___ ___.
an atom that has the same number of protons (or same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass).
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; this is the same for all atoms of an element
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an atom
a proton or neutron
an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
atomic mass unit (abbreviation: amu)
a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number 12
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of all naturally-occurring isotopes of an element
____ identified the positive nucleus with the gold foil experiment, proving the Plum Pudding idea to be wrong
____ discovered neutrons using x-rays (they have no charge).
In an element's nuclear symbol, the top left corner has the ____ number, and the bottom left corner has the ___ number.
Average atomic mass
_____ = (isotope #1's relative abundance) (isotope #1's actual mass) + (isotope #2's relative abundance) (isotope #2's actual mass)
name of element; mass number
Hyphen notation consists of the ____-____
what is the abbreviation for atomic mass unit?
____ is found by smooshing two atoms of the same element together, measuring from nucleus to nucleus, and dividing by two.
What is the unit for atomic radius?
What is another name for an Angstrom?
_____ is the energy needed to remove a valence electron.
Joules (J) or kcal/mole
What two units are used for ionization energy?
A ____ is a positively charged atom.
___ form cations.
Cations are always ___ than the atom from which they were formed.
If an atom is a cation, put a ___ in the top righthand corner of the nuclear symbol
____ is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to the valence shell.
A(n) ____ is a negatively charged atom.
____ form anions.
Anions are always ___ than the atom from which they were formed.
Joules (J) or kcal/mole
What units of energy can be used for electron affinity?
What element has the highest electronegativity? What is its electronegativity?
____ is the control the nucleus has over bonding electrons in the valence shell.
no unit of measure
How is electronegativity measured?
increases; decreases; decreases; decreases
When going down a group, atomic radii ____, ionization energy ____, electron affinity ____, and electronegativity ___.
decreases; increases; increases; increases
When looking from left to right in a period, atomic radii ____, ionization energy ___, electron affinity ____, and electronegativity ____.