Exploration (Ch. 19 and 20) Vocabulary

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Barolomeu Dias

an early Portuguese explorer, explain his motives: "To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."
-Ventured far down the coast of Africa until he and his crew reached the tip.

Prince Henry the Navigator

The nation's most enthusiastic supporter of exploration was the son of Portugal's king. Henry's dreams of overseas exploration began in 1415 when he helped conquer the Muslim city of Ceuta in North Africa. There, he had his first glimpse of the dazzling wealth that lay beyond Europe.
- wished to spread Christian faith

Pope Nicholas V

(born Nov. 15, 1397, Sarzana, Republic of Genoa — died March 24, 1455, Rome) Pope (1447 - 55). Soon after his election, he ended the schism caused by the rivalry between popes and church councils. He restored peace to the Papal States, won Poland's allegiance, and gained the support of Austria by promising to crown Frederick III as Holy Roman emperor. Nicholas initiated the Peace of Lodi (1455) in order to end strife in Italy, and he tried to stamp outsimony and other corrupt practices in the church. A patron of art and scholarship, he rebuilt many of Rome's architectural treasures and founded the Vatican Library. Although Nicholas was the first of the Renaissance popes, his failure to promote real religious reform helped bring about the Reformation of the 16th century.

Vasco da Gama

In 1497, Portuguese explorer began exploring the east African coast. He reached the port of Calicut, on the southwestern coast of India. Da Gama and his crew were amazed by the spices, rare silk, and precious gems that filled Calicut's shops. De Gama's remarkable voyage of 27,000 miles had given Portugal a direct sea route to India.

Afonso d' Albuquerque (Afonso de Albuquerque):

The Portuguese nobleman Afonso de Albuquerque (ca. 1460-1515) is best known as governor of India. He is also considered to be the founder of the Portuguese imperial system.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen:

The Dutch merchant Jan Pieterszoon Coen (ca. 1586-1629) founded Batavia as governor general of the Dutch East India Company. Possessed of great administrative and military ability, he contributed greatly to the expansion of Dutch influence in the East Indies.

Treaty of Tordesillas:

a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declairing tat newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Line of Demarcation:

the Pope's division of the New World between the Spanish and Portuguese

Dutch East India Company:

a company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia.

Ming Dynasty:

a Chinese dynasty that ruled form 1368 to 1644. China had become a dominate power in the Ming Dynasty.

Hongwu

a peasant's son commanded the rebel army that drove the Mongols out of China in 1368. That year, he became the first Mind emperor. Hongwu continued to rule from the former Yuan capital of Najing in the south. He began reforms designed to restore agricultural lands devastated by war, erase all traces of Mongol past, and promote China's power and prosperity.

Yonglo

Hongwu's son emerged victories. Yonglo continued may of his father's policies, although he moved the royal court to Beijing. He also had far-ranging curiosity about the outside world. He launched the first seven voyages of exploration.

The Forbidden City

When Yonglo moved the Chinese capital to Beijing, he ordered the building of a great palace complex to symbolize his power and might. The complex became known as the Forbidden City because commoners and foreigners were not allowed to enter.

Hall of Supreme Harmony

Taihe Hall, or the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is the largest building in the compound. It measure 201 by 122 feet and stands about 125 feet high. This hall was used for important ceremonies, such as those marking the emperor's birthday or the day the crown prince took the throne.

Hall of Central Harmony

Zhonge Hall, or the Hall of Central Harmony, was a small square building between the two main halls. It was a sort of private office where the emperor could stop to rest on his way to ceremonies.

Admiral Zheng He

Led all seven of Yonglo's voyages. His expeditions were remarkable for their size. Everything about them was large. The voyages ranged from Southeast Asia to eastern Africa. Everywhere Zheng He went, he distributed gifts included silver and silk to show Chinese superiority. As a result, more than 16 countries sent tribute to the Ming Court.

Manchus

a people, native to Manchuria, who ruled China during the Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty

China's last dynasty, which ruled from 1644 to 1912

Kangxi

The first became emperor in 1661 and ruled for some 60 years. He reduced government expenses and lowered taxes. Kangxi gained the support of intellectuals by offering them government positions.

Daimyo

a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai.

"rule the empire by force"

Following his own motto, Nobunga sought to eliminate his remaining enemies.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Nobunga's best general, continued his fallen leader's mission. He set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile.

Tokugawa Shogunate

a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867

Haiku

a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables

Kabuki

a type of Japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime are used to present stories

"Closed country policy"

As time passed, the Tokugawa shoguns realized that they could safely exclude both the missionaries and merchants. By 1639, they had sealed the Japan's borders and institute a "closed country policy"

Oda Nobunaga:

One daimyo, the brutal and ambitious, defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568. He sought to elimate his remaining enemies.

Christopher Columbus

a Genoese sea captain made a daring voyage from Spain in 1492. Instead of sailing south around Africa and then east, Columbus sailed west across the Atlantic in search of an alternate trade route to Asia and its riches. Columbus never reached Asia. Instead, he stepped onto an island in the Caribbean. That event would bring together the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

"Admiral of the Seas"

Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits. The terms were unusually generous, but as his son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return

Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria

Columbus' ships that sailed out of a Spanish port around dawn on August, 3, 1492

"Tierra! Tierra!"

A lookout aboard the Pinta caught sight of a shoreline in the distance. "Tierra! Tierra!" means "Land! Land!"

los indios

The inhabitants who greeted Columbus. The term translated into "Indian," a word mistakenly applied to all the native peoples of the Americas.

San Salvador ("Holy Savior")

Columbus claimed the island for Spain and named it this

Colony

a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control

Pedro Alvares Cabral (Portuguese)

In 1500, the Portuguese explorer reached the shores of modern-day Brazil and claimed the land for his country.

Vasco Nunez da Balboa (Spanish)

Spanish explorer had marched through modern-day Panama and had become the first European to gaze upon the Pacific Ocean

Amerigo Vespucci (Italian)

In 1501, an Italian in the service of Portugal, also traveled along the eastern coast of South America. Upon his return to Europe, he claimed that the land was not part of Asia, but a "new" world.

Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese)

In 1519, Portuguese explorer led the boldest exploration yet. With about 250 men and five ships, he sailed around the southern end of South America and into the waters of the Pacific. After exploring the island of Guam, Magellan and his crew eventually reached the Philippines.

Hernando Cortes

A Spaniard landed on the shores of Mexico. He marched inland, looking to claim new lands for Spain. He and the many other Spanish explorers who followed him were known as conquistadors.
- Soon after landing in Mexico, he learned of the vast and wealth Aztec Empire
- He and his men conquered the Aztecs in 1521

Emperor Montezuma II

the Aztec emperor was convinced at first that Cortes was a god wearing armor. He agreed to give the Spanish explorer a share of the empire's existing gold supply.

Conquistadors

a Spanish conqueror of the Americans

Francisco Pizarro

In 1532, another conquistador marched a small force into South America. He conquered the Incan Empire.

Atahualpa

Incan ruler

Peninsulares

The Spanish settlers to the Americas

Mestizo

a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

Encomienda

a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it

Giovanni da Verrazzano

An Italian explorer in the service of France. In 1524, he sailed to North America in search of a sea route to the Pacific. While he did not find the route, he did discover what is today, the New York harbor.

Samuel de Champlain

In 1608, another French explorer sailed up the St. Lawrence with about 32 colonists. They founded Quebec, which became the base of France's colonial empire in North America, known as New France.

New France

the base of France's colonial empire in North America

Jamestown

the coast of Virginia and named it in honor of their king

Capt. John Smith

he joined an English group preparing to establish a colony in North America. The Virginia Company of London sailed three ships to Chesapeake Bay, arriving in 1607 to establish the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, of which Smith later became the leader. On a river voyage to explore the surrounding region, he was captured by Indians of the Powhatan empire; according to his own account, Smith was saved from death by Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian chief. While president of the Jamestown Colony, Smith oversaw its expansion. An injury forced his return to England in 1609. Eager for further exploration, he made contact with the Plymouth Company and sailed in 1614 to the area he named New England. He also mapped its coast and wrote descriptions of Virginia and New England that encouraged others to colonize the New World.

Pilgrims

a person who travels to a shrine or other holy place

Plymouth

The second English colony in Massachusetts the Pilgrims founded in 1620.

Puritans

a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the early 1600s

New Netherland

The Dutch holdings in North America

French and Indian War

a conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763

Matacom (King Philip)

the Native American ruler that led an attack on colonial villages throughout Massachusetts.

Smallpox

an epidemic that ravaged Native Americans living along the New England coast in 1616

Atalantic slave trade

the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas

Triangular trade

a pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa and Asia, and the American continents; typically, manufactured goods from Europe were sent to Africa, where they were exchanged for slaves, who exchanged for raw materials that were then sent to Europe

The Middle Passage

the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route

Stono Rebellion

a slave rebellion that commenced on September 9, 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution.

Columbian Exchange

the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas

frightening foods

Ships from the Americas brought back a wide array of items that Europeans, Asians, and Africans never had seen before. They included such plants as tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, and cacao beans (for chocolate). And they included animals such as the turkey, which became a source of food in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Chicle

a gumlike substance obtained from the latex of certain tropical American trees, as the sapodilla, used chiefly in the manufactureof chewing gum.

Quinine

A bittertasting, colorless drug derived from the bark of certaincinchona trees and used medicinally to treat malaria. For hundredsof years quinine was the only drug known to effectively combatmalarial infection.

Capitalism

an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit

Joint-stock company

a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits

Mercantilism Policy

a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century; it held that the prosperity of a nations depended on a large supply of gold and silver

Bullionism

was an early and primitive form of mercantilism and is most closely associated with 16th- and 17th-century Spain, which was thought to owe its prosperity and military might to the gold and silver of its New World colonies.

Favorable Balance and Trade

an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad

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