In which domains do U.S. forces operate?
Air, land, maritime, space, and cyberspace domains
As a unique military profession, the Army is built upon an ethos of trust. What are four other essential characteristics of our profession?
Military expertise, honorable service, esprit de corps, and stewardship.
What are the 11 Primary Missions of the U.S. Armed Forces?
• Counter terrorism and irregular warfare.
• Deter and defeat aggression.
• Project power despite anti-access/area denial challenges.
• Counter weapons of mass destruction.
• Operate effectively in cyberspace.
• Operate effectively in space.
• Maintain a safe, secure, and effective nuclear deterrent.
• Defend the homeland and provide support to civil
• Provide a stabilizing presence.
• Conduct stability and counterinsurgency operations.
• Conduct humanitarian, disaster relief, and other
What is the most important determinant of combat power?
What is the US Army's greatest strategic asset; providing depth, versatility, and unmatched experience to the joint force?
The all-volunteer force
Title 10, USC, establishes the basic structure of the Army. What Forces make up the Army?
One Regular Army and two Reserve Components: the Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the
Army National Guard of the United States. Army Civilians support all three components.
What is the function of the Operating Force?
Operating forces consist of units organized, trained, and equipped to deploy and fight
What is the function of the Generating Force?
The generating force mans, trains, equips, deploys, and ensures the readiness of all Army forces
What five sets of characteristics will enhance the Army's operational adaptability?
• Depth and Versatility.
• Adaptive and Innovative.
• Flexibility and Agility.
• Integrated and Synchronized.
• Lethal and Discriminate
Operational Terms and Military Symbols
Who is the principal audience for ADP 1-02, Operational Terms and Military Symbols?
All members of the profession of arms.
What is the purpose of a common set of doctrinal terms and military symbols?
Terms and symbols can communicate a great deal of information with a simple word, phrase, or image and eliminate the need for a lengthy explanation of a complex idea
What are the three areas of focus of the professional language of land warfare?
Principle of Simplicity, Importance of clear communication, Importance of teaching the language
Military symbols fall into two categories: framed and unframed. What is the difference?
Framed military symbols include unit, equipment, installation, and activity symbols.
Unframed military symbols include control measure and tactical task mission symbols
Who establishes Army policy for developing doctrinal terms?
United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)
That common operational picture is displayed on a map or another geographical form representing the area of operations and which has been overlaid with military symbols. What does it include?
• Friendly and enemy units or ships.
• Control measures.
• Other elements that the commander deems necessary.
How are acronyms usually formed?
Acronyms are usually formed from the initial letters of a name or parts of a series of words
What is a single display of relevant information within a commander's area of interest tailored to the user's requirements and based on common data and information shared by more than one command?
A common operational picture.
What is communication in reference to Operational Terms and Military Symbols?
Communication is an exchange of meaning that is only complete when the intended meaning is understood precisely by the intended audience
Who can propose the creation, modification, or elimination of any doctrinal term?
Any Soldier may contact a proponent for a given subject area. The proponent will consider the Soldier's proposal.
What is the purpose of acronyms and abbreviations is the profession of arms?
To allow the use of shorter versions of doctrinal and military terms for ease of discussion in speaking and writing.
Why does the Army synchronizes its intelligence efforts with unified action partners?
To achieve unity of effort and to meet the commander's intent.
How do multinational and interagency partners reinforce and complement Army intelligence capabilities?
By providing cultural awareness, as well as unique perspectives and capabilities.
What is ISR?
Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.
What is the purpose of ISR?
To synchronize and integrate the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations.
What is the intelligence warfighting function?
The intelligence warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that facilitate understanding the enemy, terrain, and civil considerations.
What are the information collection tasks?
Plan requirements and assess collection, Task and direct collection, Execute collection.
What is the intelligence enterprise?
The intelligence enterprise is the sum total of the intelligence efforts of the entire U.S. intelligence community.
What are the intelligence core competencies?
The core competencies are intelligence synchronization, intelligence operations, and intelligence analysis.
What is Intelligence synchronization?
Intelligence synchronization is the "art" of integrating information collection and intelligence analysis with operations to effectively and efficiently support decision-making.
What are the 4 primary means for information collection?
• Intelligence operations.
• Security operations.
What is the purpose of intelligence analysis?
To describe the current—and attempt to proactively assess—threats, terrain and weather, and civil considerations.
Unified Land Operations
What is the description of Unified land operations?
Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution.
What are the operational variables?
The operational variables consist of political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, time (known as PMESII-PT).
What are the mission variables?
The mission variables consist of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations (known as METT-TC).
What is the is the Army's warfighting doctrine?
Unified land operations .
What is a series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space?
What is a military action, consisting of two of more related tactical actions, designed to achieve a strategic objective, in whole or in part?
What is a battle or engagement, employing lethal or nonlethal actions, designed for a specific purpose relative to the enemy, the terrain, friendly forces, or other entity?
A tactical action.
How are Army operations characterized?
Army operations are characterized by flexibility, integration, lethality, adaptability, depth, and synchronization.
What is Operational Art?
Operational art is the pursuit of strategic objectives, in whole or in part, through the arrangement of tactical actions in time, space, and purpose.
What is MDMP?
The military decision-making process.
What is the purpose of MDMP?
It integrates the activities of the commander, staff, subordinate headquarters, and other partners to understand the situation and mission; develop, analyze, and compare courses of action; decide on a course of action that best accomplishes the mission; and produce an operation order or order for execution.
What factors determine the employment of special operations forces?
• National policy
• Geographic combatant commander requirements
• Joint force commander requirements
• Ambassador requirements
• The character of the operational environment
• The nature of the threat
What are the Special Operations core principles?
• Scalable operations
How many Special Operations Force imperatives are there?
What will increase the effectiveness of shaping activities and improve execution of counterterrorism and irregular warfare?
Interdependence between special operations forces and conventional forces.
What critical capabilities represent the core of America's unique Army special operations capabilities?
• Special warfare
• Surgical strike
What is Stabilization?
Stabilization is a process in which personnel identify and mitigate underlying sources of instability to establish the conditions for long-term stability.
What is the focus of stability tasks?
• Identifying and targeting the root causes of instability.
• Building the capacity of local institutions.
What are sources of instability?
Decreased support for the government based on what
locals actually expect of their government, Increased support for anti-government elements, The undermining of the normal functioning of society where the emphasis must be on a return to the established norms.
What are Stability tasks?
Stability tasks are tasks conducted as part of operations outside the US in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment and provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.
What are the principles that lay the foundation for long-term stability?
Conflict transformation, Unity of effort, Legitimacy and host-nation ownership, Building partner capacity.
What is a line of effort?
A line of effort is a line that links multiple tasks using the logic of purpose rather than geographical reference to focus efforts toward establishing operational and strategic conditions.
What is a decisive point?
A decisive point is a geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contribute materially to achieving success.
What is a stability mechanism?
A stability mechanism is the primary method through which friendly forces affect civilians in order to attain conditions that support establishing a lasting, stable peace.
What is a defeat mechanism?
A defeat mechanism is the method through which friendly forces accomplish their mission against enemy opposition
What are the core competencies of Fires?
• Air Defense Artillery.
• Field Artillery.
What are the critical capabilities of Fires?
• Target Acquisition.
• Target Discrimination.
• Target Engagement.
What are the principles of Fires?
Precision, Scalable, Synchronized, Responsive, Networked.
What are the characteristics of Fires?
• All Weather.
• Precision/Near Precision Fires.
• Mass Area Fires.
• Air and Space Integration.
• Inherently Joint.
What are the defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce effectiveness of such attack either through surveillance actions or active engagements of aerial threat?
Air defense artillery
What is Fire support?
Fire support is fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives.
What is the objective of fires planning?
To optimize combat power.
How is fire support planning accomplished?
Fire support planning is accomplished using targeting and the running estimate.
What is a Target?
A Target is an entity or object considered for possible engagement or other action.
What does targeting provide?
Targeting provides an effective method for matching the friendly force capabilities against enemy targets.
Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA)
What are the primary documents containing national preparedness doctrine?
• The National Preparedness Goal.
• The National Incident Management System (known as
• The National Response Framework (formerly known as
the National Response Plan).
Which warfighting function will the majority of DSCA missions stress?
The sustainment warfighting function.
While there are many potential missions for Soldiers as part of DSCA, what are the overarching purposes of all DSCA missions?
Save lives, Alleviate suffering, Protect property.
How many state and territorial National Guard elements are there?
54. All fifty states, the District of Columbia, territories of Guam and the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have National Guard forces making 54 state and territorial NG elements.
What is the Army National Guard's dual role?
The Army National Guard's dual role is as a state military force under the governor and as a reserve component of the Army that the President may mobilize for federal service.
In DSCA, military forces support a primary (or lead) civilian agency. What do commanders need to realize achieving the military end state means?
That state, territorial, local, and tribal authorities become able to provide effective support to their citizens without the further assistance from military forces.
What is one of the biggest mistakes that tactical commanders can make in DSCA?
Military forces operating freely within civilian jurisdictions risk upsetting the constitutional balance between civil authority, the military, and the private sector.
What is Protection?
Protection is the preservation of the effectiveness and survivability of mission-related military and nonmilitary personnel, equipment, facilities, information, and infrastructure deployed or located within or outside the boundaries of a given operational area.
What is the protection warfighting function?
The protection warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that preserve the force so that commanders can apply maximum combat power to accomplish the mission
What is the first step toward effective protection?
During the preparation phase, what is the focus of protection?
Deterring and preventing the enemy or adversary from actions that would affect combat power and the freedom of action.
What is the staff looking for as they monitor the conduct of operations during execution?
Variances from the scheme of maneuver and protection.
Assessing protection is an essential, continuous activity that occurs throughout the operations process. What is Assessment?
Assessment is the determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating a condition, or achieving an objective.
Offense and Defense
What is tactics?
Tactics is the employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other.
What is the tactical level of war?
The tactical level of war is the level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces.
What is an engagement?
An engagement is a tactical conflict, usually between opposing, lower echelon maneuver forces.
What echelons typically conduct engagements?
Brigades and smaller echelons typically conduct engagements.
How long to engagements last?
They are usually short, executed in terms of minutes, hours, or days.
What is a battle?
A battle consists of a set of related engagements that lasts longer and involves larger forces than an engagement.
What do battles affect?
Battles can affect the course of a campaign or major operation
When does a battle occur?
A battle occurs when a division, corps, or army commander fights for one or more significant objectives. Battles are usually operationally significant, if not operationally decisive.
The art of tactics consists of three interrelated aspects. What are they?
The creative and flexible array of means to accomplish
assigned missions, Decision making under conditions of uncertainty when faced with a thinking and adaptive enemy, Understanding the effects of combat on Soldiers.
What is the science of tactic?
The science of tactics encompasses the understanding of those military aspects of tactics—capabilities, techniques, and procedures—that can be measured and codified.
What is a hasty operation?
A hasty operation is an operation in which a commander directs immediately available forces, using fragmentary orders, to perform activities with minimal preparation, trading planning and preparation time for speed of execution.
What is a deliberate operation?
A deliberate operation is an operation in which the tactical situation allows the development and coordination of detailed plans, including multiple branches and sequels
What is the sustainment warfighting function?
The sustainment warfighting function is related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance.
What is logistics?
Logistics is planning and executing of the movement and support of forces.
What are personnel services?
Personnel services are sustainment functions that man and fund the force, maintain Soldier and Family readiness, promote the moral and ethical values of the nation, and enable the fighting qualities of the Army.
What are the sustainment principles?
What are the principles of personnel services?
What is the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve a unity of effort?
What is the purposeful reliance by one Service's forces on another Service's capabilities to maximize the complementary and reinforcing effects of both?
What are generating forces?
Generating forces consist of those Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the operational Army's capabilities for employment.
What are operating forces?
Operating forces are those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof.
The Operations Process
What is the Army's framework for exercising mission command?
The operations process.
What are the major mission command activities performed during operations?
Planning, Preparing, Executing, Continuously assessing the operation.
How do commanders drive the operations process?
Through understanding, visualizing, describing, directing, leading, and assessing operations.
What is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander?
An operational environment
What is MDMP?
The military decision-making process is an iterative planning methodology to understand the situation and mission, develop a course of action, and produce an operation plan or order.
What are the MDMP steps?
• Step 1 - Receipt of mission.
• Step 2 - Mission analysis.
• Step 3 - Course of action development.
• Step 4 - Course of action analysis.
• Step 5 - Course of action comparison.
• Step 6 - Course of action approval.
• Step 7 - Orders production, dissemination, and
What are troop-leading procedures?
Troop-leading procedures are a dynamic process used by small-unit leaders to analyze a mission, develop a plan, and prepare for an operation. TLP are used by commanders and leaders without a staff.
What are the troop leading procedure steps?
• Step 1 - Receive the mission.
• Step 2 - Issue a warning order.
• Step 3 - Make a tentative plan.
• Step 4 - Initiate movement.
• Step 5 - Conduct reconnaissance.
• Step 6 - Complete the plan.
• Step 7 - Issue the order.
• Step 8 - Supervise and refine the plan.
What is the Army's operational concept?
Unified land operations.
How are unified land operations accomplished?
Through decisive action.
What is decisive action?
The simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive, and stability operations (or defense support of civil authorities) that set the conditions for favorable conflict resolution.
What is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander's intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations?
What are the six principles of mission command?
Build cohesive teams through mutual trust, Create shared understanding, Provide a clear commander's intent, Exercise disciplined initiative, Use mission orders, Accept prudent risk.
Who are unified action partners?
Unified action partners are those military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and elements of the private sector with whom Army forces plan, coordinate, synchronize, and integrate during the conduct of operations.
What is unity of effort?
Unity of effort is coordination and cooperation toward common objectives, even if the participants are not necessarily part of the same command or organization—the product of successful unified action.
What is the commander's intent?
The commander's intent is a clear and concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired military end state that supports mission command, provides focus to the staff, and helps subordinate and supporting commanders act to achieve the commander's desired results without further orders, even when the operation does not unfold as planned.
What are mission orders?
Mission orders are directives that emphasize to subordinates the results to be attained, not how they are to achieve them.
What is the art of command?
The art of command as the creative and skillful exercise of authority through timely decision-making and leadership.
What is leadership?
Leadership is the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization.
What is an Army Leader?
An Army leader is anyone who by virtue of assumed role or assigned responsibility inspires and influences people to accomplish organizational goals.
How can leaders mitigate resistance?
Leaders can mitigate resistance by anticipating what others value, their reactions to influence, their shared understanding of common goals, and their commitment to the general organization or the purpose of the mission and their trust in the organization and the leader.
What is command?
Command is the authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment.
What is mission command?
Mission command is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander's intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations.
What conveys the expectations that the Army wants leaders to meet?
The Leadership Requirements Model
What are the leader attributes?
Character, presence and intellect.
What are the three categories of Army Leadership competencies?
The Army leader serves to lead others, The Army leader serves to develop the environment,
themselves, others and the profession as a whole, The Army leader serves to achieve organizational
The category of leads encompasses five competencies. What are they?
• Leads others.
• Extends influence beyond the chain of command.
• Builds trust.
• Leads by example.
What is the purpose of ADP 6-22, Army Leadership?
ADP 6-22 establishes the fundamental principles by which Army leaders accomplish their missions and care for their people.
Training Units and Developing Leaders
Who is responsible for training units and developing leaders?
Where does training begin?
Training begins in the generating force.
Where do Soldiers build on the fundamental skills, knowledge, and behaviors, which were developed in institutional training?
What is the Army's institutional training and education system, which primarily includes training base centers and schools that provide initial training and subsequent professional military education for Soldiers, military leaders, and Army civilians?
The institutional training domain.
What are the training active organizations undertake while at home station, at maneuver combat training centers, during joint exercises, at mobilization centers, and while operationally deployed?
The operational training domain.
What is planned, goal-oriented learning that reinforces and expands the depth and breadth of an individual's knowledge base, self-awareness, and situational awareness; complements institutional and operational learning; enhances professional competence; and meets personal objectives?
The self-development training domain.
What process do commanders apply to unit training and leader development?
The operations process—plan, prepare, execute, and assess
How many Army principles of unit training are there?
What does METL stand for and what is it?
The unit's mission-essential task list (METL) represents the doctrinal framework of fundamental tasks for which the unit was designed.