World History Glencoe Parthenon

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BHS Jensen 2010--2011

Acropolis

in early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill which was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings PAGE(S) 115

Aeschylus

Famous Greek playwright who composed the only complete trilogy possessed today, the Oresteia. PAGE(S) 129

Age of Pericles

the period between 461:429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power PAGE(S) 123

Agora

in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market PAGE(S) 115

Alexander the Great

King of Greece and Macedonia who conquered the Persian Empire with his great military skill in 326 B.C. PAGE(S) 139

Archimedes

Famous Greek scientist of the Hellenistic period who was important for his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, and for establishing the value of the mathematical constant pi. PAGE(S) 142,143

Area

a geographical region with an undetermined boundary PAGE(S) 115

arête

in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest PAGE(S) 113

Aristotle

One of the greatest Greek philosophers who influenced Western philosophy; pupil of Plato. PAGE(S) 116

Aristotle

Another Greek philosopher, a student of Plato's, who found three good forms of government monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional of which he favored constitutional government for most people. PAGE(S) 132

Aspect

the appearance of something from a specific position or viewpoint PAGE(S) 127

Cleisthene

Athenian statesman, a reformer like Solon, who established a more democratic constitution and is generally regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy. PAGE(S) 120

Controversial

to be disputed or the subject of argument PAGE(S) 129

Culture

the skills, arts, etc. of a certain people in a given period PAGE(S) 123

Darius

Persian ruler who was defeated by an outnumbered Athenian army trying to conquer new lands in 490 B.C. PAGE(S) 121

Debate

a verbal exchange of different ideas and philosophies PAGE(S) 119

Democracy

the rule of the many, government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives PAGE(S) 118

Derive

to obtain or to come from something PAGE(S) 115

direct democracy

a system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings PAGE(S) 123

Emerge

to rise from an obscure or inferior position PAGE(S) 138

Enormous

very large PAGE(S) 110

Ephor

one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens PAGE(S) 119

epic poem

a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer PAGE(S) 112

Epicureanism

school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure PAGE(S) 143

Feature

a prominent or distinguishing aspect of something PAGE(S) 111

Great Peloponnesian War

25 year war between the two Greek groups, the Athenians and the Spartans, when the Athenian Empire was destroyed in 405 B.C., weakening the entire Greek empire. PAGE(S) 124

Hellenistic Era

the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world PAGE(S) 141

Helot

in ancient Sparta, captive peoples who were forced to work for their conquerors PAGE(S) 118

Homer

Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, the first great epic poems. PAGE(S) 111

Hoplite

in the early Greek military system, heavily armed foot soldiers PAGE(S) 116

Institution

a custom or practice which has become ingrained or an organization designed for a specific purpose PAGE(S) 125

Involved

to include or to contain PAGE(S) 128

Minoans

Bronze-age Crete people from 2700:1450 B.C. PAGE(S) 110:111

Mycenaeans

Indo-Europeans on mainland Greece who dominated most of Greece and invaded Crete, helping to destroy the Minoan civilization. PAGE(S) 111

Oligarchy

the rule of the few, a form of government in which a small group of people exercises control PAGE(S) 118

Oracle

in ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess PAGE(S) 128

Ostracism

in ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote PAGE(S) 123

Pericles

Athenian ruler from 461:429 B.C., who expanded Greece's borders and expanded the involvement of Athenians in their democracy. PAGE(S) 123

Phalanx

a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in a rectangular formation PAGE(S) 116

Philosophy

an organized system of thought, from the Greek for "love of wisdom" PAGE(S) 130

Plato

One of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization, he searched for the ideal state of society (427-347 B.C.). PAGE(S) 131

Polis

the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding territory PAGE(S) 115

Pursue

to follow in order to overtake, capture, kill, or defeat PAGE(S) 123

Ritual

a ceremony or rite PAGE(S) 128

Significant

to be important to the outcome PAGE(S) 109

Socrates

Greek sculptor who was an influential philosopher; he was eventually sentenced to death for impiety and corrupting youth; he was killed in 399 B.C. by drinking hemlock, a poison. PAGE(S) 130:131

Socratic method

the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates, it employs a question and answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason PAGE(S) 130

Solon

A reform-minded aristocrat who received full power to correct economic crisis by cancelling all land debts and freed people who were enslaved for debts. His reforms, however, did not solve the problem. PAGE(S) 120

Sophocles

A famous Greek playwright who wrote Oedipus Rex, a famous Greek tragedy. PAGE(S) 129

Sphere

a three - dimensional surface (ball or globe) where all points are equidistant from a fixed point PAGE(S) 142

Stoicism

a school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; it says that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God, and that people should bear whatever life offers PAGE(S) 143

Successor

one that follows, especially to a throne, title, estate, or office PAGE(S) 140

Tragedy

a from of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw PAGE(S) 129

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