AP Human Geography Rubenstein Chapter 4 Folk Culture

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BHS Weatherley 2010-2011

Artifact

Any item, made by humans, that represents a material aspect of culture

Built environment

The man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter to neighborhoods to the large-scale civic surroundings.

Core-domain-sphere model

The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest.

Cultural convergence

The contact and interaction of one culture to another.

Cultural/environmental perception

The concept that people of different culture will definitely observe and interpret their environment and make different decision about its nature, potentiality and use.

Cultural landscape

Modifications to the environment by humans, including the built environment and agricultural systems, that reflect aspects if their culture

Cultural realm

The entire region throughout which a culture prevails. Criteria that may be chosen to define culture realms include religion, language, diet, customs, or economic development.

Cultural hearth

Locations on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.

Cultural complex

The group of traits that define a particular culture.

Cultural trait

The specific customs that are part of the everyday life of a particular culture, such as language, religion, ethnicity, social institutions, and aspects of popular culture.

Cultural region

a region defined by similar culture traits and cultural landscape features.

Custom

Practices followed by the people of a particular cultural group.

Environmental determinism

A doctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.

Folk culture (folkways)

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

Food attraction

Reasons certain culture/region eat certain types of food.

Habit

a repetitive act that a particular individual performs.

Material culture

The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture

Mentifact

The central, enduring elements of a culture expressing its values and beliefs, including language, religion, folklore, and etc.

Popular culture

Dynamic culture based in large, heterogeneous societies permitting considerable individualism, innovation, and change; having a money-based economy, division of labor into professions, secular institutions of control, and weak interpersonal ties; and producing and consuming machine-made goods.

Possibilism

The theory that the physical may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.

Sociofact

The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.

Taboo

a restriction on a behavior imposed by a social custom.

Uniform Landscape

the spatial expression of a popular custom in one location that will be similar to another.

Expansion diffusion

the spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area

Relocation diffusion

sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate the new ones

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