Unit 2 AP Human geography

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expansice population policies

polices that encourage lsrge famjlies and raise the natural increase rate (NIR)

What kind of population policy was used in China under Mao Zedung?

expansive population policies

Ever since 1971, was has the dominant form of birth control in India been?

forced steralization of women

What did China's one child policy fail to do?

reduce the number of orphaned girls in China

In 2007, what did a provincial government in Russia award to a lucky couple as an effort to encourage population growth

a car

Stage 5 country

experience dramatically increased crude death rate because of high mortality among the relatively large number of elderly people

In general how do European countries promote ____ policies by___

expansive population policies by decreasing taxation and other fiscal means for larger familes

Arithmetic density

population number relative to the land=>people per land mile
China and India , Egypt ! Africa smaller
Bad because it features an even distribution of people
Egypt = low arithmetic density because everyone lives near the Nile (lots of empty areas) => doesn't show true distribution of people

Physiological density

population divided by arable land
Egypt has a higher physiological density because people are packed there ( but not have to be living there because looking at total pop)

Agricultural density

giving us an idea of land production
Netherlands shows how limited arable land and large population look at agricultural show low figure, but then see importing food

TFR

Total Fertility Rate

Where are the population clusters now and where will they be in 50 years?

Highest pop growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Mexico City is the most populated city in world currently
Pacific Rim where heavy pop density -low agricultural density
India high and Eastern Europe, and Subsaharan Africa population density and growth rate much higher

Why do women have more kids in certain areas promarilly rural areas?

Women less educated= no birth control
Need kids to help in farm
Male dominance
More kids because idea that some will die
In 50 years, 1 in 6 peo from India

Substisence farming

grow enough food for selves but no surplus

Effects of epidemics on
Orphan children

no skills to survive
Slave labor -cocoa industry
Child soldiers -prevalent because unhappy and never given love

Effect of epidemics on Widows and food

Widows = making their lives harder are the customs
Decrease population suddenly- hurts economy because less people working and helping each other
Even less food out there
Corrupt dictatorships rise up b/c have means to control
Problem becomes every ones connected through globalization = affect food output, political situations that involve more people, bad economies affect everyone

Effect of epidemics on politics

Political result tends to involve lots of neighbors and then a large group of people in escalating conditions like in Somalia , now have lots of young men who become terrorists because unhappy and mad looking for ways out of their current situation
Like Cold War undeveloped countries were targets for communists and capitalism to grow

NIR

Natural increase rate =percentage a population grows in a year
Subtract CDR from CBR and done in percentages
Excludes migrations
21st century NIR has stayed at 1.2, but it has peaked in 1963 which was 2.2
82 million people added to world annually
87 in 1990
3-4 billion in 14 years
4-5 billion in 13 years
5 -6 billion in 12 years
Base bigger small change makes a greater increase in population

CBR

Crude child birth = total # of live births in a year for every 1,000 people in a country

CDR

Crude death rate = total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people in a country

doubling time

# of years needed to double a population

NIR higher in developing countries

In Subsaharan Africa exceeds 2.0 versus negative in Europe b/c no more immigrants
1/3 of population growth in past decade in South Asia
1/4 in Subsaharan Africa
Rest divided equally amongst East Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Southwest Asia and North Africa
Regional differences= most additional people live in places that can't maintain them= look at fertility and mortality rates
0.6 NIR IN USA
CBR mirrors NIR = Subsaharan Africa over 40 vs. Europe below 10

TFR

Total Fertility rate= measure number of births in a society=> avg # of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49)
2.1 key average and stabilized population
Lowering which a bit of a problem = low NIR

Aging index and problems associated with a high one

#of older people per 100 children 0-14
In Europe 263 elderly people per 100 kids.
In US 80 elderly per 100 kids and increasing probably 114 by 2030
Health care for old people
Work force lower who pay for health care?!
Retirement = pensions paid by younger working force

World TFR

World one= 2.5 but exceeds 5.0 in Subsaharan Africa and 2 or less in Europe
CDR a little more even because goes from range of 1 to 17 does 1-17
CBR 7 per 1,000 to 52 per 1,00= huge range

Oddly high CDR

Note odd thing that Denmark one of worlds most prosperous countries has a higher CDR than Cape Verde a poor country and U.S. higher CDR than Mexico

Malthius Essay on population growth

Argued that population would outrun food supply
Food supply arithmetic vs. population increase that is exponential
Wrong because increase with tech for more food (biogenetics!) than he predicted, but population growth didn't increase quite to the scale that he thought it would
Paul Ehrlich with the Population Bomb book, said that we'd overuse our food supply and die! That population increasing too fast even tech can't help
Marxists say that enough food in world for everyone but that politics unfair and distribute unfairly
most people say it is a problem we are overcoming
Still a controversial topic....
In general there seems to be more optimism unlike the early 50s and 60s

In the 20th cent population raised from 1.6 billion to 6.1 billion there was a sharp increase, why is that?

Longer life spans is the primary reason
Tremendous impact on lots of things
In 1900s global life expectancy 30 s
In 2000 global expectancy 60s
2100 expect it to level out and stabilize at 10 billion

Population composition

# of men and women and their ages of population

Population pyramids

pyramids that show men on left and women on right demonstrating their distribution of population based on age

what does a population pyramid with a wide base and narrow top like an evergreen tree mean? and some examples please

Countries with high total fertility rates, high infant mortality rates, and low life expectancies
Pakistan.,Yemen, Guatemala, the Congo, and Laos.
15 to 19 highest than drop

What does a country with more of a vase shape with bulge in middle pretty much all the same mean? any examples please?

Countries with low TFR, longer life expectancies, and high wealth
Italy, France, and Sweden

cohorts

age increments

Dependency ratio

# of young people from 0 to 14 and elders 65 and up all over the # of work aged people
Subsaharan Africa has the highest ratio of persons under the age of 15
Europe has more elderly than youth
47% dependency ratio vs. 85% in Subsaharan Africa
Young dependents outnumber elderly in Africa unlike Europe where closely the same
Strains ability for the country to provided needed services like schools, hospitals, and day care cents
Often leads to youths going to work to make money
Note in Italy lots more old people (20%?population) so now faced with shrinking work force

sex ratio

# of males to every female
Higher in general around the world (because females tend to live 7 yrs more than male) except for in India, China, and Middle East where discouraged and high female abortion rate
Men and women ratio about the same in parts of Subsaharan Africa, Australia, Greenland,

Age specific birth rates

...

Replacement Fertility

...

Zero population growth

...

Why is the United States Second the shocking second highest country with newborn death (more deaths per 1000)

Low birth weight babies= less than 5 lbs 8 ounces= lots of Premature babies
One of big reasons behind it is smoking during pregnancies
Alcoholism and drug use
Malnutrition of mother
Infectious diseases
Pretty much an economic cause = we have a high percentage of poor people in the United States

What country has longest life expectancy and why that is?

Japan has the highest (fish perhaps?)
Feliel piety to take care of elderly

What country has the lowest life expectancy and why?

Warfare and violence big in some countries like Angolia= 39
Child soldiers bring numbers down
Average age didn't mean that if 39 would be going to die just statistics

What country is below the average Mother Index for the developed countries (scale measuring a mother's and child's health care)?

United States below the mean line for the more developed countries= above Subsaharan Africa but quite pathetic for a developed country

Leading causes of death for United States over the years and currently,and what do they teach us as a whole?

Heart disease then cancer before it was TB, pneumonia, diaaherra
Improvements in health care
Heart disease and cancer then harder to treat then the others
Causes of deaths can change overtime

Epidemiological transition stage 1

Stage 1: pandemics Rapidly CDR
Small pox, Black Plague, anthrax, measles, etc.

Epidemic Transition Stage 2

Stage 2: Receding pandemics (rapidly declining CDR)-industrialization
Cholera
diseases that occur when crowded population
Easier for diseases to be transmitted
Happens when water is hit and contaminated

Epidemic Transition Stage 3

Stage 3: Degerative diseases (moderately declining CDR)
Cardiovascular diseases and heart attacks and cancer = diseases that affect older people

Epidemic Transition Stage 4

Stage 4: delayed degenerative diseases (low but increasing CDR)
Medical advancements make life expectancy longer but now chronic diseases kick in
Cancer, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's , etc.

Epidemic Transition possible stage 5

Stage 5: evolution of old diseases
TB
Subsaharan Africa in growing population(stage 2) so that why always show up as bad because poor, still growing, and poor sanitation
Stage 5: increased connections
Increased globalization
HIV spread from California , Florida, and New York because main airports there
Lot of people in coming with more diseases and others traveling so bring more forward

Vectored disease

spread through an intermediate and non vectored by physical contact

How much do American citizens pay out of pocket for health care in comparison to what European citizens pay for their healthcare?

In United States people pay for ??? versus other countries like Europe where pay around ????

What are the three main reasons people migrate?

Seeking economic opportunity
Cultural freedom
Environmental comfort

Laws of migration

Every migration flow generates a return to counter migration
The majority of migrants move a short distance
Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

gravity Model

Predicts interactions b/w places on the basis of their pop size and distance
Assumes spatial interaction (migration) is directly related to the populations
Population A* population B(/distance)

push and pull factors

Push factors
Conditions and perceptions that help migrants decide to leave a place
Pull factors
Circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locations from other places-the decision of we're to go

Circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locations from other places-the decision of we're to go

Legal status
If you have a visa or work permit that allows you legal access to a country
Economic conditions
Brain drain= India and China to Europe and the United States post WWI for jobs
Gold rush= people within the country and people from Asia came to the west for gold
Potato famine = people from Ireland flee for lack of food
Power relationships
Women in Middle East hire southeast asian women because it establishes a dominance over their servants
Pull factor because it's offering them jobs
Slavery -pull factor
Pull factor that results in a forced migration

political examples of migration

Political circumstances
Stalin moved Jews = forced push
Yugoslavia political unrest pushed many out
Papadak that pushed Haitians out of Haiti= push b/c repressive country
Giza strip movement into Palestine
Rowanda genocide push factor

environmental conditions that cause migrations (Examples)

Environmental conditions
Potato famine push
Katrina push
Earthquake in Haiti
Political result from a threat on culture
After fall of Stalin move many Jews to Israel for different life style
Muhammad moving from Mecca to Medina
Tech advances as a push or pull factor
Travel transportations making migration easier
Can move farther away

distance decay model

Distance decay
Intensity of human activity, process or function declines as distance from its source increases
Step migration
Migration in a series of steps
Intervening opportunity
On way to some place, something intervenes and makes you stay in that area
Deportation
To send undocumented migrants back to their country (forced)
Kinship links
Where family and people tend to move towards because family has already found success and like
Chain migration
When migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates somehow to their family to tell them about how great their living space is
Immigration waves
Chains of migration built upon each other

Stages 1-5 correlation to Migration

Stage 1
Low NIR , high CBR, high CDR(demographic transition)
High daily of or seasonal mobility in search for food( migration all transition)
Stage 2
High NIR, high CBR, rapidly declining CDR
High international emigration (people moving out[e for exit]) interregional migration rural to urban areas
Stage 3
Declining NIR, rapidly declining CBR, declining CDR
High international immigration (people moving in [i for in]) and migration from intraregional migration from cities to suburbs
Inventions of new transportation allows people to travel further and more
Stage 4
Low NIR, low CBR, low CDR
Same as stage 3

Distance migration

Further away it is less likely to make trip-most move within a region or country
If long distance then usually from developing to developed countries and for economic opportunity

Voluntary, involuntary, internal, and international migration examples

Voluntary
Lot in United States now urban to suburbs
Involuntary
Slave trade, some Chinese workers forced
Internal migration
Forced example would be native Americans
International migration
17th and 18th century colonialism (lots of forced immigration from Africa for slaves onto 19th cent)
Late 19th to early 20th century from Europe to America
Lots of marginalized people seeking economic opportunity
Late 20th to early 21st from Latin America and Asia

remittances

money immigrants send back home

What county has the Largest foreign born people in world, why is that?

"American " dream-economic opportunity from Latin America
Asia -Education, economic opportunities
Haitians moving to America
Caused by political instable and economic opportunities
Job question that many people use against immigration
Taking jobs that are unwanted by Americans

Downsides and Upsides of the cash flow to emigrated from countries from immigrated to countries

Downsides
Govt relies too much on it and not help its citizens
Local people are not stimulating any govt growth
Drains the United States of 2 billion with no return
Splits up families
Families become dependent on remittances
Immigrant instability of job and lack of rights as undocumented
Upsides
Self sufficent communities in El Salvador that use remittance money to improve living -church buildings. Etc.
Better quality of life for remittance
Sets up class divisions between people who get remittances and people who don't
Benefiting small business loans
Banks using it to get more people to open accounts
Banks are more open for undocumented people to open accounts

Types of migration: Cyclic

Cyclic
Movement from one place to another just a matter of time
Commuting = from work to home
Seasonal movement -2 weeks less than 3 months something like that
Going to school
Activity space
Area created by cyclic movement
Shopping-outings
Grocery and regular
Nomadism -more periodic movement
Movement for a matter of survival, culture, and tradition

Types of Migration:periodic

Periodic
Migrant labor
Millions peo come for jobs
Trans-humane
Cattle drives (system of pastoral farming where ranches move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures
College
Permanent address home and temporary as college
Military service
Seasonal vacationing

Migration: interregional and intraregional

Migration
Internal migration/interregional
Trail of Tears
Movement of slaves to farms and with owners
Great Migration
Ex slaves move from South to the cities of the North
Gold Rush
Rural to urban
City to suburb
International migration
Latin America permanent immigrants
Slave trade -involuntary

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