Honors Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes

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Sharon SFHS Honors Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Quiz

if s and p sublevels are full

outer level is considered full

outer level full

most stable situation

8 electrons in outer level

makes an atom become unreactive

helium

exception because it only has one full orbital

if it can't have full outer level, atoms likes to have half filled orbitals

these are slightlt more stable (less reactive) than other choices

Cr

[Ar] 4s1 3d5

Cu

[Ar] s1 3d10

cation

positive ion

anion

negative ion

why do atoms become ions

to become more stable (octet rule)

what does the 1st column do?

lose one election

what do metallic elements do when forming ions

lose electios

positive ions are

smaller then corresponding neutral atoms because it lost one energy level (goes down a shell energy level, decreasing the size) positive char (p) hasnt changed but pulling on fewer electrons

what do halogens do

gain 1 electron

nonmentals do what when forming ions

gain electrons

negative ions

bigger than corresponding neutral atoms because there are more electrons crowding

metal activity

inc toward bottom left (Fr)

nonmetal activity

inc toward top right but skips noble gases (F)

first ionization energy

energy required to remove electrons from gaseous atom

x(g) + E ~>

x+(g) + e- (E needed)
units (KJ/mol)

ionzation energy to right

increases to right because inc nuclear charge (or more protons)

ionization energy column trend

decreases down a column because electron is greater distance from nucleus, valence electrons are shielded from pull of nucleus by core electron

ionization energy exception trend

electron from full or 1/2 full sublevel more stable than trend so greater ionization energy

metal ionization energy

low 1st IE; takes little E to remove e-

nonmetal ionization energy

high 1st IE

electronegativity

relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element

highest electronegativity

Flourine

electronegativity upper right

increases to upper right (not noble gases) b/c less distance from nucleus to outer reacting electrons, shielding effect less so it does not affect reacting electron so increases at top of group; more protons in nucleus so more pull for outer electron as go across row to right

electron affinities

the energy change that accompanies the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom

x(g) + e- ~>

x-(g) + E (usually energy given off)

electron affinity across a period

across a period inc to right because increased nuclear char (#p) but if stable will cause deviation

negative electron affinity means

more stable as is, does not want more electrons (must add E to force it to take that electron)

metals electron affinity

gives off less E so smaller electron affinity some even neg values

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