Medical Terminology Chapter 5 Studyguide

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107 terms · This is a study guide for Medical Terminology for Chapter 5.

vas/o-

blood vessel

ven/o-

vein

angi/o-

blood vessel; lymphatic vessel

vascul/o-

blood vessel

ather/o-

softy, fatty substance

varic/o-

varix; varicose vein

anerurysm

area of dilation and weakness in the wall of an artery

fibrillation

arrhythmia in which there is a very fast, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium

bradycardia

arrhythmia in which the heart beats too slowly

-ose

full of

-ous

pertaining to

-oma

tumor; mass

-itis

inflammation of

circulat/o-

movement in a circular movement

purkinje fiber

modified cardiac muscle fibers in the subendothelial tissue, concerned with conducting impulses through the heart.

lipid profile

test that provides a comprehensive picture of the levels in the blood of cholesterol and triglycerides and their lipoprotein carriers (HDL, LDL, VLDL)

chordae tendineae

ropelike connective tissues attached to their valve leaflets

coronary arteries

artery that carries oxygenated blood to the myocardium

how often does the heart contract

at least once every second to pump blood throughout the body

how does the heart contract

by the conduction system of the heart, the SA node initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat, the electrical impulse then travels through the AV node, through the bundle of HIS and into the right and left bundle branches that end in a network of nerves called the Purkinje fibers

rrhythm/o-

rhythm

cardiac catheterization

procedure performed to study the anatomy and pressures in the heart

systole

the upper number, represents the force of contractions of the ventricles

MUGA

a nuclear medicine test that evaluates how well the ventricular wall of the heart moves when it contracts

electrophysiologic study

procedure to map the heart's conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia

pericardium

outermost layer of the heart

ECG

electrocardiography- a procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart

EKG

electrocardiography- a procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart

What is medical word for "an area of dead tissue"?

necrosis

What is medical word for "blocked oxygen flow"?

...

What is medical word for "diseased heart muscle"?

cardiomyopathy

What is medical word for "an overactive heart muscle"?

...

What is medical word for "mass/vein that is prolapsed"?

...

What is a cardiothoracic surgeon?

it is a person that does surgical procedures pertaining to the heart and thoracic cavity

What is medical word for "tumor that is cancerous"?

...

What is medical word for "mass that is a soft, fatty substance"?

atheroma

What is medical word for "tumor that is hard"?

...

diastole

the resting period between contractions

myocardium

the muscular layer of the heart

atri/o-

atrium (upper heart chamber)

valv/o-

valve

lipid/o-

lipid (fat)

repolarization

to end a contraction of the heart, positive potassium ions diffuse out of the cell, while molecular pumps move positive sodium and some calcium ions out of the cell and move the rest of the calcium ions into storage within the cell

cardi/o-

heart

When and why would digitalis be used?

to treat congestive heart failure because it decreases the heart rate and strengthens the heart's contractions

When and why would thrombolytic be used?

to treat a blood clot that is blocking blood flow through an artery because thrombolytic drugs lyse (breaks apart) a clot

When and why would aspirin be used?

to prevent heart attacks because it prevents blood clots from forming by keeping platelets from sticking together

When and why would a antibiotic be used?

...

depolarization

to begin a contraction of the heart, an impulse from the SA node changes the permeability of the myocardial cell membrane.

veins

blood vessel that carries blood from the body back to the heart

arteries

blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body

tricuspid valve-

between the right atrium and right ventricle, opens when the right atrium contracts to allow blood flow into the right ventricle then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the right atrium

pulmonary valve-

between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk, opens when the right ventricle contracts to allow blood flow into the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the right ventricle

mitral (bicuspid) valve-

between the left atrium and left ventricle, opens when the left atrium contracts to allow blood flow into the left ventricle then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium

aortic valve-

between the left ventricle and the aorta, opens when the left ventricle contracts to allow blood flow into the aorta then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle

capillaries

are smallest blood vessels in the body

vasculature

refers to the blood vessels associated with a particular organ

cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

atrium

small upper chamber of the heart

bypass graft

an autograft consisting of a segment of vein or artery grafted into place in a bypass.

phleb/o-

vein

arrhythmia

any type of irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart

hypertriglyceridemia

an elevated level of triglycerides in the blood

sphygmomanometer

instrument used to measure the pressure of the pulse by using a thin inflatable cuff

symptoms of angina pectoris

pain can be crushing, squeezing, heaviness, or pressure-like sensation in the chest, with pain extending up into the jaw, teeth, neck, or down the left arm, often with extreme sweating(diaphoresis) and a sense of doom

The two major veins of the body are the superior and inferior

venae cavae

The combining form steth/o- means

chest

Patients diagnosed with HTN may be prescribed an antihypertensive drug to combat the more than normal pressure.

true

The _______ artery brings oxygenated blood to the upper leg.

femoral

The femoral artery brings oxygenated blood to the

leg.

The first arteries that branch off the aorta and bring oxygenated blood to the heart muscle are the ________ arteries.

coronary

The inferior tip of the heart is known as the ________.

apex

In a PTCA, the catheter is first inserted percutaneously, or through the _____.

skin

In coronary artery bypass grafting, a part of the ______ vein is harvested from the leg and sutured in to bypass the blockage in the coronary artery.

sabhenous

The combining form ventricul/o- means

ventricle

If an EKG tracing shows bigeminy, there was a repeating pattern of ______.

a normal contraction then a premature contraction

A healthcare professional will inform the patient who is scheduled to have a TEE that the catheter will be inserted into his/her ___________.

esophagus

The myocardium is thickest in the ________ ventricle because it must work the hardest to pump blood to the entire body.

left

A digitalis drug such as digoxin is prescribed for

congestive heart failure

A coronary angioplasty is the process of reshaping by surgery of a blood vessel.

true

A paramedic notifies the hospital that the ambulance is bringing in a patient with a suspected AMI. This means the patient may have had a heart _________.

attack

A/An ___________ is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the heart.

cardiologist

What is the largest blood vessel?

artery

What is a valvulotome?

is an instrument used to cut a valve.

An antiarrhythmic drug is prescribed for patients with

heart rhythm problems.

Which layer of the heart is known as the muscular layer?

myocardium

What is an uncomfortable sensation felt in the chest during a premature contraction of the heart?

palpitation

Near the knee joint, the femoral artery becomes the ______ artery.

popliteal

The resting period between contractions of the heart is known as

diastole

Which word parts do you need to build a medical word that means inflammation of a vein?

-itis which means inflammation of and phleb/o- which means vein

In the pelvic cavity, the abdominal aorta ends as it splits in two (bifurcation) to form the right and left ______ arteries.

illac

Tachycardia is the opposite of _______.

bradycardia

The smaller branches of an artery are called the __________.

arterioles

The cause of essential hypertension is

unknown

An angiography is a/an ________.

process of recording a blood vessel

Which nuclear medicine procedure is also known as a radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) or gated blood pool scan?

single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan

The combining form arteri/o- means:

artery

What is a chronic condition in which an enlarged heart cannot pump sufficient amounts of oxygenated blood to the body?

congestive heart failure

Structures that help regulate the blood flow between the artia and the ventricles are called the heart ________.

valves

What are vital signs?

temperature, pulse, blood pressure and respirations

The part of the pericardium that is next to the wall of a cavity is the ________ pericardium.

parietal

The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and the ________, an irregularly shaped, central area between the lungs.

mediastinum

hypertension

elevated blood pressure

cardiomegaly is the medical word for:

heart enlargement

A baby with an atrial septal defect has a hole in the interatrial ___________.

septum

A patient with left-sided heart failure would most likely be treated with two types of drugs: a diuretic drug to remove edema from the tissues and a/an ________ drug to strengthen heart contractions.

digitalis

In the medical word sphygmomanometer, the combining form man/o- means _____.

thin

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