primarily in plant based foods, such as grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, & legumes
Where are carbohydrates primarily found?
in form of glucose
Most desirable form of energy for body is found where?
What fuel source does the brain and red blood rely on?
how we get glucose from plants
glucose-it is used as energy by plants
What is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature?
glucose units link together and are stored in a form of starch
How is glucose stored?
glucose, fructose, galactose (1 unit)
maltose, sucrose, lactose (2 units)
glucose + glucose
Sucrose (table sugar)
glucose + fructose
Lactose (milk sugar)
glucose + galactose
starch, glycagen, fiber (3+ units)
plants, such as wheat or rice, potatoes, peas & beans
Starch is the storage form in what?
in animals & humany body
Glycogen is the storage of glucose in...
liver & muscle cells (but only limited amounts in muscle cells) (major sources in liver)
Glycogen is stored in what?
important source of glycogen for blood
What is the importance of glycogen?
naturally found in foods
added to food for beneficial effect (ex: oats bran added to bread)
dietary fiber+functional fiber
Human lack digestive enzyme to break down fiber
dissolves in water and is ferminated by intestinal bacteria (becomes gel like) such as viscous & fruits (citrus, apple), oats & barely, seeds, beans
does not dissolve, has a laxative effects, foods such aswhole grains, wheat bran, veggies
helps prevent constipation & speed up bowl movement
Positive effects of insoluable fiber?
bran, endosperm, germ
Whole grain foods contain all 3 parts of kernel
brown rice, oat meal, whole-wheat bread
mineral (rich fibrous outer shell)
nutrient rich core
milling removes bran and germ
some B vitamins, iron, phytochemicals & dietary fiber
What are lost with refined grains?
folic aced, Vitamin B1 B2 B3 & iron added to restore some lost nutrition (not as good as whole grains)
2 grams of fiber per 100 calories
How many grams of fiber per how many calories?
multiple forms of gluctose
monosacchrides and diaccharides
Dietary fiber helps...(4)
helps weight managment, protect against heart disease, prevent colon cancer, prevent and control diabetes
Health effects of dietary fiber (2)
helps prevent constipation & prevents diverticulasis
130 grams per day, low-moderate amounds of simple carbs, higher amounts of fiber & other complex carbs
Recommended intake of carbs?
14 grams of fiber per 1000 calories
Recommended intake of dietary fiber?
drink more fluids
How can you gradually increase fiber in your diet?
What are the fiber needs for males & females 19-51?
Carbohydrate digestion starts where?
Mouth (1) step in carb digestion
salvisa contains amylase which starts to break down starch into smaller units and maltose
Stomach (2) step in carb digestion
acid and other juices deactivate salivary enzyme
Small Intestine (3) step in carb digestion
the arrival of food in the small intestine signals pancreas to release another enzyme, pancreatic amylase. This then breaks down the remaining starch units into maltose. The disaccrides are absorbed then maltase lactase and sucrase are housed in the microvilli.
Blood (4) step in carb digestion
these enzymes break down the disaccrides into monosacchrides (glucose, fructose, galactose). the monosacchrises are now ready to be absorbed in the blood
Liver (5) step in carb digestion
fructose and galactose is converted to glucose. glucose is either stored or shipped back out into blood for delivery to your cells.
Large Intestine (6) step in carb digestion
fiber continues down to large intestine, where some of it is metabolized by bacteria in your colon. the majority of fiber is eliminated from your body in stool.
the inability to digest lactose in foods due to low levels of the enzyme lactase
when maldigestion of lactose results in symptoms such as nausea, cramps, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea (1-3 percent of children)
gradually add dairy products, eat with a meal or snack, try reduced-lactose milk & dairy products such as yogurt or cheese
How can lactose intolerant people tolerate lactose containing foods & beverages?
chemical messengers to your body that iniate or direct specific actions
the hormone that directs the glucose from your blood into your cells. insuline is produced in and released from the pancreas
the process of converting excess glucose into glycogen in your liver & muscle
the breakdown of glycogen to release glucose
the creation of glucose from noncarbohdrate sources, mostly protein
the pancreas release insulin, which converts the glucose in glycogen (glycogenesis) in liver & muscle cells
what happens when blood glucose rises?
coverted to fat
what happens to the remaining excess glucose?
pancrea releases glucagon to raise blood glucose levels.
what happens when blood glucose drops?
without glucose, fat cant be broken down completely, which produces ketone bodies
what happens when you dont have an adequate amount of glucose?
the by-products of the incomplete breakdown of fat
the condition of increase ketone bodies in the blood
balanced meals help to maintain blood glucose- complex carbs and mix meals breaks down slowly which allows gradual rise in blood sugar
whats the best way to maintain blood glucose control?
naturally occuring sugars
sugars such as fructose and lactose that are found naturally in fruit and dairy foods
sugars that are added to processed foods & sweets
calories that come with little nutrition ex: jelly beans
DRI: no more than 25% of daily calories
Recommended intake of sugar:
How much does Americans average of added sugars daily?
the decay or erosion of your teeth
baby-bottle tooth decay
the decay of baby teeth in children due to continual exposure to fermentable sugary liquids
alternatives to table sugar that sweeten foods for fewer calories
calorie free sweeteners
sweet n low, equal, sunette, splenda, neotame
sweet n low
sugar alcohols (polyols)
sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol (gum) absorbs more slowly than sugar, not calorie free. can cause diarhea
Gycemic Response or Gyclemic Index (GI)
compared with standard: white bread, may be useful to people with diabetes.
a medical condition whereby individual either doesnt have enough insulin or is resistant to the insulin available. often known as diabetes
the inability of the cells to respond to insulin
type 1 diabetes
autoimmune disease, childhood, earlys years
type 2 diabetes
resistant to insulin, age 45 & older (95%)
impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes)
a condition whereby a fasting blood glucose level is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as having diabetes mellitus
feeling very tired, losing weight without trying, getting more infections than usual, losing feeling or getting tingling feeling in feet
causes of hyperglycemia:
too much food, too little insulin, illness, stress
risks factors of hyperglycemia
over age 45, race, obesity, diet, excessive alchohol, family history, smoking, inactive lifestyle
when females get pregnant (high blood glucose level)
chronic complications of diabetes millitus
increase heart disease, eye blurness, kidney (doing extra work to excrete it) nerves (poor circulation)
how to prevent diabete mellitus
blood glucose control is the key, have nutrition & lifestyle goals
blood glucose below 70 mg, usually people with diabetes, causes fainting comas
causes of hypoglycemia
too little food, too much insulin or diabete pills
hydrophobic; carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
3 types of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterois
functions of lipids in the body:
energy storage, insulation, transports protein in blood, cell membane structure
functions of lipid in foods:
flaky texture to baked good, makes meat tender, provide flour and aromas, conrtibutes to satiety
chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with acid (-COOH) at one end
saturated fatty acids
solid at room temperature, all carbons bonded to hydrogen
unsaturated fatty acids
double bond between carbons, more liquid at room temperature, monosaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid
monusaturated fatty acid (mufa)
one double bond
polyunsaturated fatty acid (pufa)
more than one double bond
omega 6 fatty acid (linolec acid)
helps with structure of cell membrane, found in leafy greens and vegetable oils
omega 3 fatty acid (alpha linolenic acid)
heart healthy, flax seeds, oily fish, decreases risks of heart disease, regulates blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood gloats
more solid at room temperature
hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond
hydorgens are on the opposite sides of the double bond
kept low in diet, raise LDL (bad cholestrol), lowers HDL (good cholestrol), must be listed on the food label
fatty acids+glucerol, most common lipids in foods and body, referred to as fats
2 fatty acids+glycerol+phosporus group, phosphorus-containing head is hydrophillic, fatty-acid tail is hydrophobic
what do phospholipids do?
helps cell membranes, helps fat travel lecithin, sereves as an emulsifier
compund that mixed water and oil together
four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen ex: cholestrol, bile, estrogen, testosteroine
cell memrane structure, precursor of compounds in body, not required in diet
lipid digestion & absorption
1) mouth: lingual lipase 2) stomache: gastrin lipase (lipid enzyme) 3) small intestine: bile acids, pancreatic lipase 4) absorption of michelle (compounds combine to send to liver)
Transport carriers that enable fat to travel through blood and lymph are called what?
to prevent the fat from seperating out in a sald dressing, a ______ is added
most of the fat in the mediterranearn diet come from what type of oil?
a diet low in_____fat and trans fat can reduce your risk of heart disease
triglycerides contain a______backbone with three fatty acids
fatty fish are rich in___and DHA, making it a heart healthy food choice
The american heart association recommends that you consumer at least how many servings of fish per week to obtain the necessary omega-3 fatty acids?
lipids are _____, meaning they do not dissolve in water.
phospholipids make up the bilayer in cell_______