Amino Acid is ordered by DNA and held by a peptide bond between C of Acid group, and N of adjacent amino group. A dehydration synthesis removes H2O. Draw (N-C-C-N-C-C)<- peptide bond... dipeptide
There are two geometric shapes to the Polypeptide, alpha and beta, which both have hydrogen bonds holding them together. Hydrogen bonds are the weak interactions between Oxygen, which carries a negative charge, and Hydrogen which carries a positive charge. The interaction is due to charge attractions (polar). Draw alpha: springy Beta: zigzag line
When R groups come in contact with each other they will bond in 4 different ways. The first way, is an ionic bond. The charged R groups come together and give away and accept electrons. The second bond, is a hydrogen bond, which was explained about in the secondary structure. The third bond is Vander Waals. Nonpolar groups in close proximity bond due to similar atomic properties. And the last bond is the sulfur bond, or Disulfide Bridge. Two amino acids with sulfur R groups in close proximity lock the area tightly. This is a permanent arrangement and creates a denser configuration.
Many proteins are finished after tertiary, but in quaternary structure the bonds are the same as in tertiary