# Unit 2 AP HuG-P.R

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### demography

the study of patterns and rates of population change,inclduing birth and death rates,migration trends,and evolving population distribution patterns.

population count

### population density

a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

### Arithmetic population density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

### Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

### Population composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

### age sex pyramid

a graphic representation of the age & sex of a population

### crude birth rate(CBR)

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

### crude death rate(CDR)

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

### infant mortality

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population

### total fertility rate

the average number of children a woman has in her lifetime

### demographic transition (cycle)

Multistage model based on Western Europe's experiences of change in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization.

### doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

### exponential growth

cumalitive or compound growth (of a population) over a given time period.

### linear growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

### natural increase

population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

### population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

### stationary population level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

### absolute direction

a compass direction such as north or south

### relative direction

direction based on a person's perception of places;such as left and right.

### absolute distance

The physical distance between two points usually measured in a standard length like miles or kilometers.

### relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

### push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

### pull factors

positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attact people to new locations from other areas

### activity (action) space

the space within which daily activity occurs.

### cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

movement among a definite set of places

### seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.

### migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

### emigration

movement of individuals out of a population

### forced migration

human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

### voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

### external migration

migration across an international border

### interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### counter migration

the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated

### intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### temporary refugees

refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement

### permanent refugees

person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home

### international refugees

refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation

### intranational refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

### immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

### Eugenic population policy

government policy designed to favor one race over another

### Expansive population policy

government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

### Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

### Negative population growth

the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases

### refugee

a person who has to leave his or her country to find safety.

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