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Description is the same as the name.

Jamestown

The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop. This colony burned to the ground twice.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

Bunker Hill

a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists at the Boston customs house, who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Headrights

system for granting land to individuals in Virginia; settlers received 50 acres per head for every person whose passage they paid

Yorktown

in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops

Sir Walter Raleigh

An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."

Roanoke

Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them, they became lost when ships returned to England for supplies and war broke out between the Spanish Armada and England, preventing the ships for returning for 3 years.

Virginia Company

Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.

Mercantilism

an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

Jonathan Woolman

(October 19, 1720 - October 7, 1772) was an itinerant Quaker preacher, traveling throughout the American colonies, advocating against conscription, military taxation, and particularly slavery.

Lord Cornbury

Made governor of New York and New Jersey in 1702. He was a drunkard, a spendthrift, and a bad person. Cousin of Queen Anne. England nor America wanted him.

Mourning War

An Indian war often initiated by a widow or bereaved relative who insisted that her male relatives repair the loss.

Inner Light

Quaker's believed in an inner light which was a gift of God's grace, it expressed itself as divine intuition or knowledge unaccountable by ordinary derivations of thought. Transcendentalists believed that every person possesses an Inner Light that can illuminate the highest truth and put a person in touch with God

Puritans

English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)

Predestination

doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by god

Privateers

Ships that are privately owned but are urged to attack enemy ships during a war.

Monmouth

a place that Washington attcked the British, June 1778 the battle ended in a draw, but it proved that Washington could contend with the British at full strength

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

proclamation calling on all able bodied men to assist him in the defense of the colony, including the slaves of rebels. These blacks were promised their freedom in exchange for service in the Army.

Baron von Steuben

volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778. Drill master trained Americanas in winter.

Captain John Smith

Admiral of New England, an English soldier, sailor, and author. This person is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Native American girl Pocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father, Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.

Bacon's Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Powhatan

Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia

Declaratory Act

Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.

John Rolfe

Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tobacco industry in North America. Rolfe died in 1622, during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.

Townshend Acts

laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Son of Liberty

a group of colonists who formed a secret society in 1765, to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution. John Adams/Hancock

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

Navigation Acts

A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies. 1651

Letters of Marque

Initially called Letters of Reprisal, First issued against France by Henry XII of England. One nation giving a sea captain license to attack an enemy nation without punishment from the attacked. Compensation for sea captain is a percentage of their plunder in some cases. Sometimes the crown didn't take any of the booty.

George III

King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 to 1820

Great Awakening

It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).

George Whitefield

One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.

Lexington

The town is famous for being the site of the opening shots ("the shot heard 'round the world") of the Battle of Lexington, the first engagement of the American Revolution. April 19, 1775

New Lights, Old Lights

New Lights= Emotional Great Awakening Preachers
Old Lights= Theologically liberal, socially conservative

Virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

Treaty of Paris

Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an Independent country.

Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.

Albany Congress

1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

King Philip's War

1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

Benedict Arnold

United States general and traitor in the American Revolution in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled (1741-1801)

Cowpens

A major win for the colonists was this battle on January 17th, 1781. Morgan uses unconventional tactics where 2 lines of militia fire and run into horseshoe-shaped woods where allies wait and use guerilla warfare on british. American Victory.

Middle passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

Mechanical Courage

What British soldiers had, and American soldiers had to develope; the ability to stay by one's gun and do his job even though scared.

Benjamin Franklin

American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.

Salutary Neglect

british colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government and American Benefit.

John Eliot

Puritan who learned the Indians' language and began the task of converting them to Christianity. He translated the Bible into the Algonquin Indian language. It was the first bible printed in America.

Stono Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.

terms of indenture

provided with clothing, a gun, and a small tract of land after their service ended.There was no permanent stigma attached to indentured servitude, and the families merged readily with the total population. Children born to parents serving their indenture were free. Terms of an indenture were enforceable in the courts, and runaway servants could be compelled to return to their masters and complete their service, with additional periods added for the time they had been absent.

Prince Henry the Navigator

(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.

deference

Act or practice of yielding to another's authority

Benjamin Lay

Lay was barely over four feet tall and wore clothes that he made himself. He was a hunchback with a projecting chest, and his arms were almost longer than his legs. He was a vegetarian, and drank only milk and water. He would wear nothing, nor eat anything made from the loss of animal life or provided by any degree by slave labor.

Saratoga

October 17, 1777, General Gates led troops to surround the British and make them surrender. After the surrender at Saratoga caused the British to generally keep their troops along the coast. British under Burgoyne defeated.

Gullah Speech

Slave babble.

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