It's a method of studying visual attention in infants: if an infant looks longer at one of the two stimuli the researcher can infer that the baby is able to discriminate between them and has a preference for one over the other.
the sharpness of visual discrimination. how clearly one can see. by 8 months child infant's vision approaches that of adults.
the ability to detect differences in light and dark areas in a visual pattern.
the light-sensitive neurons that are highly concentrated in the fovea (central region of the retina). Infants have immature cones- in infancy the cones are a different size and shape and are spaced farther apart than in adulthood.
central region of the retina
not until 2-3months are infants able to track moving objects smoothly, and then they are able to do so only if an object is moving slowly.
7 month year olds perceive the subjective square indicating that they integrate the separate elements to perceive the whole.
the perception of objects as being of constant size, shape, color, etc. in spite of physical differences in the retinal image of the object.
argue that our perception of constant size and shape of objects develops as a function of experience
Argue that this perceptual regularity stems from inherent properties of the nervous system. visual experience is not necessary for size constancy.
the identification of separate objects in a visual array. motion is important for infants to identify separate objects. for infants common movements conveys oneness.
a depth cue in which an object occludes increasingly more of the background indicating that the object is approaching. babies blink defensively at an expanding image that appears to be heading toward them.
the difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain.
the process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals caused by binocular disparity resulting in the perception of depth. this form of depth perception emerges at 4 moths and done in a couple of weeks.
monocular or pictorial cues
the perceptual cues of depth such as relative size and interposition that can be perceived by one eye alone
perception of the location in space of a sound source. when newborns hear a sound and they turn towards it.
the combining of information from two or more sensory systems.
innate fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular stimulation. the presence of strong reflexes is a sign that the newborn's CNS is in good shape.
clumsy swiping movements by young infants toward the general vicinity of objects they see.
the attempt by a young child to perform an action on a miniature object that is impossible due to the large discrepancy in the relative sizes of the child and the object.
the extraction from the constantly changing stimulation in the environment of those elements that are invariant or stable.
the possibilities for action offered by objects and situations. learning small not large objects can be lifted, liquid can be spilled, chairs a certain size can be sat in.
a form of learning that consists of associating an initially neutral stimulus with a stimulus that always evokes a particular reflexive response. Pavlov
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response
in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus that is repeated paired with the unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning the originally reflexive response that comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus
instrumental or operant conditioning
learning the relation between one's own behavior and the consequences that result from it
a reward that readily follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
violation of expectancy
a procedure used to study infant cognition in which infants are shown an event that should evoke surprise or interest if it violates something the infant knows or assumes to be true. they expected the box to stay there and the screen to stop when it contacted the box.