solid wastes in the large intestine that are expelled from the body during bowel movements.
microscopic, fingerlike projections that line the inner wall of the small intestine and increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients.
the part of an object that makes direct contact with its environment.
the process by which digested nutrients pass through the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
the first 25 cm of the small intestine; site where most chemical digestion occurs.
the process by which materials, using energy supplied by the cell, are moved across a membrane.
the process by which molecules move from places where there are more concentrates to places where they are less concentrated. A form of passive transport.
liquid secreted by the pancreas which contains a variety of enzymes; aids in the digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
dark green to yellow-brown fluid produced by the liver; helps digest fats in the small intestine.
permeable membrane- membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through by diffusion.
a pulpy mixture of food and gastric juices; produced in the stomach, from which it passes into the small intestine.
a liquid that includes hydrochloric acid and pepsin and that is responsible for the chemical digestion of protein in the stomach.
a thick, sticky substance that lines and protects the inner walls of the digestive organs; it facilitates that passage of food through the digestive tract and helps protect the walls of the digestive trace from being digested.
an open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane.
a painful sensation in the lower esophagus or upper stomach; sometimes caused by excess stomach acid.
a component of gastric juice that helps create the environment that pepsin needs to break down protein in the stomach.
an enzyme in the stomach that breaks down protein.
a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch.
a protein that is capable of speeding up a chemical reaction.
a flap of tissue that sits at the base of the tongue that keeps food from going into the windpipe during swallowing.
glands that produce saliva and also secrete amylase
a ball-shaped mass moving through the digestive tract.
watery substance secreted by three pairs of glands around the mouth; helps moisten and soften food for swallowing; contains an enzyme called amylase that begins the digestion of starch.
a chemical indicator that, when added to a solution and heated, changes from blue to light green to red in the presence of increasing concentrations of sugar.
one of the three basic food types; found in oils and some dairy products.
a yellow-brown indicator that turn blue-black when it come into contact with starch.
one of the three basic food types; may be in the form of starch, sugar, or fiber.
a substance that changes in some way to indicate the presence of another substance.
one of the three basic food types; needed for building and repair of tissue in the body.
natural chemicals from the environment which build bones, teeth, and blood cells.
fuels the body needs to keep you going.
chemicals made by living organisms (organic) that help with chemical reactions, build blood cells, and control the nervous system.
a ring of muscle that aids in the one way passage of food through the digestive tract.
a thick, sticky substance that lines and protects the inner walls of the digestive organs.
regular muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract.
the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components that can be absorbed into a blood stream
the tearing and grinding action, the mixing and mashing action, and the breaking down of large food particles into smaller particles.
a series of actions whose purpose is to break down the chemical bonds in nutrients so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
the ability of an organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain equilibrium
a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function.
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
a group of different tissues that work together to perform a specific function.
the smallest unit of an organism that can carry out the basic functions of life.
the complete living thing.