Term List Ch.8

Created by ChiChi199424 

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America Secedes from the Empire

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia, he went heavily into debt, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Hessians

German mercenaries that were sent to smash the uprising by king George III.

Thomas Paine

He was a radical who wrote "Common Sense" He argued American advantages of separating and the disadvantages of staying with England.

Thomas Jefferson

He wrote the Declaration of Independence. He believed in Republicanism.

General Washington

After retreat following the battle of Long Island, Continental troops moved into New Jersey where they won important battles at Trenton and Princeton. (Crossing of the Delaware River). He was appointed General of the Continental army by John Adams.

Richard Henry Lee

He wasMember of the Second Continental Congress who urged Congress to support independence. He signed the Declaration of Independence and was the one who truly established the belief of independence (June 2)

General William Howe

He was a general stationed in New York who's purpose was to aid Burgoyne's troops unfortunately he took the main British army to attack Philadelphia and abandoned Burgoyne, which led to the British loss in the important battle at Saratoga.

General Cornwallis

He led his troops into a trap, they were surrounded by the French navy and Americans, also 1/3 of Hessians deserted them. The British general defied an order and was trapped at Yorktown forcing his surrender; he called Washington an old fox.

General Burgoyne

Surrendered to America at Saratoga. He originally wanted three British armies to march on New York, from different directions. They would crush American forces there once they controlled the Hudson River, the British could stop the flow of soldiers and supplies from New England to Washington's army. This failed and was a big turning point in the war.

Baron Van Steuben

He helped teach American troops to fight better and become more disciplined. Helped greatly in the road to revolution.

General Greene

He was the American general who fought the British in the Southern colonies near the end of the war. He was very successful and victorious.

Lord North

He was the Prime Minister of England. He was the one who hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis' surrender in 1781.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain. Was one of the three representatives sent to France to sign the Peace Treaty.

2nd Continental Congress

After Bunker Hill and Lexington and Concord battles, delegates returned for a second congress. This time they declared independence.

Declaration of Independence

This document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain. John Hancock was the primary writer.

Loyalists

"Loyal" to England, also known as Tories. They were treated harshly in America, their homes were sold, they were often tarred and feathered. Some worked as spies for the crown.

Patriots

Americans also known as whigs. They declared independence from the crown, and fought for freedom.

Armed Neutrality

This was the term used when France would equipped America (secretly) with arms to fight against Britain. In the begginning France was neutral but was also helping America at the same time.

Treaty of Paris 1783

American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays were sent to France to advocate America. This ended the revolution with the official declaration of independence for other nations. Britain wanted to end it hastily.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

This was the first treaty made between America and Native Americans. It dealt with the Iroquois towards their land, basically the Native American lost most of their land.

Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)

This battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory only because of the depletion of American supplies. The colonists had a height advantage, but this was finally when people ralized the battle has truly begun.

Failed Invasion of Canada 1775

Burgoyne and Howe attempt to invade Canada. This would disrupt help for the colonists. In the end it had failed.

Battle of Trenton

The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won. This was a major win for General Washington

Battle of Saratoga

Major win for the Americans and turning point of the war. It proved to the French that America could win the war and they finally allied with America. General Gate defeats General Burgoyne.

Battle of Yorktown

With great help from the French navy and troops, America surrounds British troops. General Cornwallis retreats and eventually surrenders to the colonists. (King George III did not* want that and did not give the order). There were however a full year until the official end of the war.

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