Miller & Levine Biology Chapter 2

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Chapter 2 notes from miller& levine biology text book

atoms

the building blocks of matter

proton

positivly charged part of an atom in the nucleus

neutron

part of atom with no charge in the nucleus

electron

negatively charged particle of an atom that orbits around the nucleus and is 1/1840 the size of a proton

element

a pure substance with only one type of atom

compound

two or more elements chemicaly combined

ionic bonds

when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other

covalent bonds

when electrons are shared between two atoms

molecule

smallest unit of most compounds

polar

one end is positive, the other is negative

hydogen bonds

hold water molecules, not as strong as chemical bonds but strongest a molecule can form

cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

attraction between molecules of different substances

mixture

2 or more elements or compounds physically mixed but not chemically combined nd it can be seperated

solution

water and a dissolved substance

solute

what is being dissolved

solvent

what it is being dissolved in

suspension

water and a non-disolved material

pH scale

scale that describes how acidic or basic a substance is

acid

0-6.5 on the pH scale

base

7.5-14 on the pH scale

neutral substance

6.5-7.5 on the pH scale

carbon

an element that can bond with many elements and form unlimited chains

macromolecules

large molecules formed from many small molecules

4 components of living things

carbohydrates; lipids; nucleic acids; proteins

carbohydrates

major source of energy for most living things

monosaccharide

single sugar

polysaccharide

many sugars linked

lipids

used to store energy

nucleic acids

store and transmit genitic information ex: RNAand DNA

proteins

regulate cell processes like timing and order of how things work, made of amino acids

chemical reaction

process that changes or transforms elements or compounds

reactent

what goes into the reaction

product

what comes out of a chemical reaction

activation energy

the energy needed to start a chemical reaction

catalyst

speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

acts like a catalyst in living things because it speeds up reactions in cells

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