← AP Bio chap 6 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All metabolism The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways. catabolic pathways A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. anabolic pathways A metabolic pathway that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds. kinetic energy The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by transferring motion to other matter. potential energy The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement. exergonic reaction A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy. endergonic reaction A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings. ATP An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells. catalyst A chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. activation energy The amount of energy that reactants must absorb (to break bonds) before a chemical reaction will start. substrate The reactant on which an enzyme works. active site The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds. induced fit The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate. cofactors Any non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. ------ can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis. coenzyme An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as -------- in important metabolic reactions. noncompetitive inhibitors A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate. allosteric site a specific receptor site on some part of the enzyme molecule remote from the active site. Molecules bind here and change the shape, making it either more or less receptive to the substrate. competitive inhibitors A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics energy The capacity to do work by moving matter against an opposing force.