# MPeck Unit 2 Vocab

## 48 terms

### Demography

scientific study of human populations

### Census

a periodic and official count of a country's population

### Population density

number of individuals per unit area

### Arithmetic population density

the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

### Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

### Population composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education

### Age-sex pyramid

displays the percentage or actual amount of a population broken down by gender and age

### Crude birth rate (CBR)

the number of live births per 1000 people

### Crude death rate (CDR)

the number of deaths per 1000 people

### Infant mortality

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population

### Total fertility rate (TFR)

a measure of the reproductive status of a population

### Demographic transition (cycle)

model used to show the stages of how a country develops, based on birth/death rates (four stages)

### Doubling time

the time required for a population to double in size

### Exponential growth

growth of a population that multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals

### Linear growth

Growth in which a quantity increases by some fixed amount during each unit of time.

### Natural increase

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

### Population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

### Stationary population level (SPL)

the level at which a national population ceases to grow.

### Absolute direction

the EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)

### Relative direction

The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places.

### Absolute distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

### Relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

### Push factors

negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

### Pull factors

a factor that draws or attracts people to another location

### Activity (action) space

the space within which daily activity occurs.

### Cyclic movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

movement among a definite set of places

### Seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis

### Migration

a movement from one country or region to another

### Emigration

movement of individuals out of a population

### Forced migration

human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

### Voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

### Internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

### External migration

migration across an international border

### Interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### Step migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### Counter migration

the return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated

### Intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### Distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### Refugee

an exile who flees for safety

### Temporary refugees

refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement

### Permanent refugees

Refugees who have been substantially integrated into the host country or host region and who are thus seen as long-term visitors.

### International refugees

refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation

### Immigration laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

### Eugenic population policy

government policy designed to favor one race over another

### Expansive population policy

government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

### Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

### Negative population growth

The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases. When the death rate exceeds the birth rate.