AP Human Geography Chapters 2&3

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Chapters 2&3 key terms

Census

A perodic and official count of a country's population

Demography

the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

Overpopulation

The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.

Global Density

the global population density (of the world)

Arithmetic Density

The population of a country or region expresse as an average per unit area.

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

Crude Birth Rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

Crude Death Rate

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population

Natural Increase Rate

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths.

Doubling Time

The time required for a population to double in size.

Total Fertility Rate

The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life

Infant Mortality Rate

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.

Life Expectancy

A firgure indicating how long on average a person be expected to live.

Demographic Transition

Multistage model, based on Western's Europe's experince, of changes in population groth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates at a low overall level.

Industrial Revolution

The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialized i late 18th century Europe.

Medical Revolution

A huge, Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.

Zero Population Growth

A condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines.

Population Pyramid

Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each group (generally five year increments) is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population.

Dependency Ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

Sex Ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

Thomas Malthus

an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)

Bundling

Tie babies up in a blanket and hang them up on a tree to die.

Migration

A change in residence intended to be permanet.

Emigration

A , migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

Immigration

migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

Net-Migration

the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time, divided (usually) per 1,000 inhabitants

Mobiltiy

The state of being in motion

Seasonal Mobility

migration by season (moving during winter to a warmer place, etc.)

International Migration

Human movement involving movement across international boarders.

Internal Migration

Human movement within a nation state

Interregional Migration

Migrating in the same region

Intraregional Migration

Migrating outside of the region which you are currently living in now

Forced Migration

Human migration flows in which the movers has no choice but to relocate

Voluntary Migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived oppurtunity, not becaused they are forced to move

Migration Transition

Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

E.G Ravenstein

Developed the laws of migration

1986 Immigration and Control Act

required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants who entered the United States before January 1, 1982 and had resided there continuously
made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants (immigrants who do not possess lawful work authorization)
granted a path towards legalization to certain agricultural seasonal workers and immigrants who had been continuously and illegally present in the United States since January 1, 1982

Chain Migration

Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship lengths

Gravity Model

A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population per unit area and a dramtic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs.

U.S Immigration and Naturalization Service

agency that oversees immigration and naturalization

Coyote

People who smuggles illegal immigrants to the U.S

U.S Border Control

The United States Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency. Their duty is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States and to deter, detect, and apprehend illegal aliens and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry.

Intervening Obstacles

Any forces or factors that may limit human migration

Quota

Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year

Brain Drain

Taking intelligent people from another country and bringing them to your country

Guest Workers

Immigrants workers who come here on a short term to work with a visa.

Counterurbanization

Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.

Remittance

money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countires

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