Chapter 6: The Duel for North America, 1608-1763

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Compared with the English colonies, New France was

more autocratically governed

The expansion of New France occurred especially

along the paths of lakes and rivers

Colonial Americans were unhappy after the peace treaty following the "War of Jenkins's Ear" because

it gave the louisbourg fortress they had captured back to France

The original cause of the French and Indian war was

competition between French and English colonistis for land in the Ohio River Valley

The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as the

Seven Years War

Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity at the Albany Congress resulted in

rejection of the congress' proposal for colonial home rule by London and by the Individual colonies

The British forces sufered early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of

General Braddock

William Pitt's strategy in the assult on New France finallyy succeeded because

he concentrated British forces on attacking the vital strong points of Quebec and Montreal

The decisive event in the French-British contest for North America was

the British victory in the Battler of Quebec

Among the factors that tended to pomote intercolonial untiy during the French and Indian War was

common language and wartime experience

The French and Indian War weakend interior Indian peoples like the Iroquois and Creeks by

removing their French and Spanish allies from canada and florida

Pontiac's fierce attack on frontier outposts in 1763 had the effect of

convincing the British to keep troops stationed in the colonies

The British Proclamation of 1763

angered colonists who thought that it deprived them of the fruits of victory

The French and Indian War created conflict between the British and the American military because

British officers treated the American colonial militia with contempt

The effect on the colonistis of the French removal from North America was

to reduce the colonies reliance on Britain and increase their sense of independence

Huguenots

French protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France

Louis XIV

Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years

Beaver

Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost

Jesuits

French Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians

Coureurs de bois

far-running, high-living French fur trappers

part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with spain

ear

Louisberg

strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759

Ohio River Valley

Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists

Germany

Bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America

Albany Congress

Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly let to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry

George Washington

Military aide of British Gnereal Baddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat

Quebec

Fortress bodly assualted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France

Militia

The "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officer's contempt

Indians

Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763

Seven Years War

The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part

Benjamin Franklin

Advocate of colonial unity at a 1754 meeting in upstate New York

Proclamation of 1763

British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion

Acadians (Cajuns)

French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British and shipped to Louisiana

War of Austrian Succession

Conflict that started with the War of Jerkin's Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France

New Orleans

Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi

Pontaic

Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion

General Braddock

Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war

Samuel de Champlain

The Father of New France, who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians

Plains of Abraham

Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished

Fort Duquesne

Strategic French stronghold; later renamed after a great British statesmen

George Washington

Milita commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war

Albany

Site of a meeting that proposed greater unity and home rule among Britian's North American colonies

Seven Years War

Conflict that began with George Washington's skirmish in Ohio and ended with the loss of France's North American Empire

Robert de la Salle

French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch

William Pitt

Spendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America

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