Chapter 23 homework

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Human Anatomy 142 John Tyler Community College

Terminal bronchioles

Which of the following structures is not part of the respiratory zone?
Alveolar ducts
Respiratory bronchioles
Terminal bronchioles
Alveoli

smooth muscle.

Components of the respiratory mucous membrane include all of these EXCEPT:
lamina propria.
basement membrane.
epithelium.
smooth muscle.

thyroid cartilage.

The largest unpaired laryngeal cartilage is the
epiglottis.
thyroid cartilage.
cuneiform cartilage.
cricoid cartilage.

main bronchi

The trachea bifurcates at the level of the sternal angle (where the manubrium and body of the sternum articulate) into the right and left _______.
lobar bronchi
segmental bronchi
main bronchi
bronchopulmonary segments

Cardiac surface

Which of the following is not a surface of the lungs?
Mediastinal surface
Cardiac surface
Diaphragmatic surface
Costal surface

three, two

The right lung has ________ lobes, and the left lung has ________ lobes.
five, four
three, two
three, three
two, two

the lungs cling to the internal surface of the chest wall as it expands.

During lung inflation
surfactant is found in the pleural cavity.
the intrapleural pressure is higher than the intrapulmonary pressure.
the lungs cling to the internal surface of the chest wall as it expands.
the lungs expand outward with the chest wall as it expands

the movement of air into and out of the lungs

Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) can also be described as _____________.
the process of inspiration only
the process of expiration only
the process of gas exchange in the lungs only
the movement of air into and out of the lungs

P1V1 = P2V2

If P1 and V1 represent the initial conditions, and P2 and V2 represent the changed conditions for pressure and volume, Boyle's law would state:
P1V1 < P2V2
P1V2 = P1V2
P1V1 > P2V2
P2V1 = P2V1
P1V1 = P2V2

Pressure gradient and Resistance

Airflow is a function of what two factors?
Concentration gradient and Compliance
Pressure gradient and Resistance
Concentration gradient and Resistance
Resistance and Compliance
Pressure gradient and Concentration gradient

Anatomic dead space + lost alveoli

Physiologic dead space =
Air in the alveoli + air in the conducting zone
Anatomic dead space + air in the respiratory zone
Anatomic dead space + lost alveoli
Anatomic dead space + air in the alveoli

cellular respiration

The partial pressures of gases in cells of systemic tissues result from
internal respiration.
external respiration.
pulmonary ventilation.
cellular respiration.

solubility coefficient

The _______ is the volume of a gas, at a given temperature and pressure, that dissolves in a specified volume of liquid.
compression gradient
solubility coefficient
partial pressure
partial pressure gradient

as bicarbonate dissolved in the plasma.

The largest percentage of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
attached to a hydrophilic carrier in the plasma.
dissolved in the plasma.
as bicarbonate dissolved in the plasma.
attached to the globin portion of hemoglobin

carbon dioxide bound to the globin.

Hemoglobin is capable of transporting
nitrogen attached to the iron.
hydrogen ions bound to the iron.
carbon dioxide bound to the globin.
oxygen attached to the globin.

the diaphragm contracts

Inspiration begins as
the diaphragm relaxes.
the diaphragm contracts.
the lungs expand.
the lungs contract.

increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure

The result of inspiration is
increased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
increased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
decreased alveolar volume causes increased alveolar pressure.
decreased alveolar volume causes decreased alveolar pressure.
increased alveolar pressure causes decreased alveolar volume.

the P(O2) is lower in the capillaries than in the alveoli.

At the arterial ends of the pulmonary capillaries
the P(O2) is higher in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
the P(O2) is lower in the capillaries than in the alveoli.
the P(O2) is equal in the capillaries and in the alveoli.
the P(O2) is higher at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is lower in the alveoli than in the capillaries.
the P(O2) is lower at first in the capillaries than in the alveoli, and then it is higher in the alveoli than in the capillaries

capillaries, tissue fluid, cells.

The ranking from highest to lowest P(O2) in the area of the arterial ends of the tissue capillaries is
capillaries, tissue fluid, cells.
cells, tissue fluid, capillaries.
cells, capillaries, tissue fluid.
tissue fluid, capillaries, cells.
all three are equal.

larynx.

The vestibular and vocal folds are found in the
larynx.
nasal cavity.
trachea.
pharynx.

respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac

Terminal bronchioles divide into (in the correct order)
respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac
alveolar duct, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar sac
alveolar duct, alveolar sac, respiratory bronchiole
alveolar sac, alveolar duct, respiratory bronchiole

elastic recoil of the lungs.

Expiration involves
movement of the sternum anteriorly.
contraction of the diaphragm.
elastic recoil of the lungs.
elevation of the ribs.

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Passageway for air between the external environment and the alveoli of the lungs
Detection of odors
Production of sound

Check the functions that can be carried out by the respiratory system.
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Passageway for air between the external environment and the alveoli of the lungs
Detection of odors
Production of sound
Production of red blood cells
Stimulates protein and lipid metabolism
Regulates blood glucose levels

Nose
Nasal cavity
Bronchioles
Larynx
Trachea

Check the components of the conducting zone of the respiratory system.
Nose
Nasal cavity
Bronchioles
Larynx
Trachea
Alveoli

Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
Blood transports carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to the lungs.

Check the events that occur during internal respiration.
Oxygen diffuses into the blood within the cardiovascular system.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood in order to be exhaled.
Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
Blood transports carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to the lungs.
Oxygen is inhaled through the pharynx.

Decreased elasticity of chest wall
Bronchoconstriction
Increased alveolar surface tension

Check all of the ways that resistance may be increased.
Decreased elasticity of chest wall
Increased elasticity of lungs
Bronchoconstriction
Bronchodilation
Increased alveolar surface tension
Increased surfactant production

False

The trachea extends inferiorly through the neck into the mediastinum and lies immediately posterior to the esophagus and the sternum.

True

The gas exchange surfaces of the lungs are part of the pulmonary circulation, while the bronchial circulation is part of the systemic circulation

True

External respiration involves the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood.

True

Total lung capacity can be calculated as: vital capacity + residual volume.

False

If a partial pressure gradient exists between two regions for a given gas, then the gas moves from the region of its lower partial pressure to the region of its higher partial pressure.

True

The P(O2) is lower in the alveoli than it is in the atmosphere, and the P(CO2) is higher in the alveoli than it is in the atmosphere.

True

Oxygen diffuses across the respiratory membrane from the alveoli into the capillaries because of the P(O2) partial pressure gradient.

False

Hemoglobin is able to transport carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrogen ions at the same time without affecting each other

False

As the diaphragm relaxes, it is depressed (moves inferiorly)

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