called for representation in Congress by population or by the amount of money given to the central government
The plan which created the three branches of government and also the bicameral legislature gave more power to states with high populations. Name the plan.
There are two ways to propose an amendment, one is by receiving two-thirds votes from Congress, the second is by a
From the formation of the New England Confederation to that of the Second Continental Congress, the colonists became progressively
both a and b (better organized and more defiant)
How are informal changes made to the Constitution?
Changes are not allowed to be informal and can only go through the congress.
What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress?
to discuss the taxing situation with England and repeal taxation laws
What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights?
NOT! to ensure that freedom would be equal for all people
States cannot deny the basic provisions of the Bill of Rights to their citizens because of the ____ of the 14th Amendment.
Due Process clause
The Due Process Clause guarantees that
States will not deny people any basic or essential liberties.
Individual rights were included in the Constitution because
the people demanded a listing of rights.
The specific rights that are covered under the 14th Amendment's Due Process Clause
have been spelled out case-by-case by the Supreme Court.
All of the following stand as proof of the American commitment to freedom
Article II of the Constitution.
The 10 amendments known as the Bill of Rights were originally intended as restrictions against
the new National Government.
According to the "Lemon test", public tax dollars could be used to purchase bibles as long as they were used for literary purposes.
Under the Establishment Clause, the government still has the power to do all of the following EXCEPT
establish an acceptable voluntary prayer for use in public schools.
The establishment clause has been interpreted differently depending upon time, place and location (just to give some examples).
The U.S. Supreme Court has put limitations on the free exercise of religion in the United States.
The Supreme Court has held that the key factor in determining whether or not released time programs are constitutional is
NOT! when the programs are held.
What is an example of limits placed upon the Free Exercise Clause?
cannot use poisonous snakes in ceremonies
Government has encouraged religion in the United States in all of the following ways EXCEPT
by allowing the establishment of a national religion.
Which of the following statements about prior restraint is TRUE?
The Supreme Court has only rarely upheld prior restraints.
Reporters use which of the following to argue against being forced to testify in court or to reveal their sources?
the 1st Amendment guarantee of the free exchange of ideas
In deciding cases involving laws against sedition, the Supreme Court has
developed the "clear and present danger" rule.
The government can limit free speech or free press if the communication
threatens to overthrow the government.
Holocaust survivors in Skokie illustrated a free speech and assembly problem called the
Unless there is a labor dispute, the Court has upheld laws that prohibit
assembly on public property.
In most picketing cases all of the following are true EXCEPT
the picketers have absolute speech/expression rights
The 1937 Supreme Court ruling in DeJonge v. Oregon established two legal principles involving which two amendments?
First and Fourteenth
The unusually large sum of money that the city of Skokie, Illinois demanded that the Nazi's post
was struck down by the court
Without this freedom there would be no political parties and no interest groups to influence the action of government
freedom of assembly
In order to conduct a parade, that uses public property, this usually has to first be obtained
The Nazi demonstration in Skokie, Illinois was particularly explosive because many residents were survivors of this
Which of the following is not a public assembly that has limits placed upon the event
private property displays
The right to privacy inherent in the concept of due process has been applied with the most controversy recently in cases involving
The most important difference between procedural and substantive due process is that
procedural due process deals with governmental methods and how they are used, whereas substantive due process deals with the fairness of laws
According to the interpretation given by the Supreme Court, "due process" not only refers to the procedural rights associated primarily with criminal cases, but also includes "substantive" rights relating to _______
Laws that are passed restricting abortion, in any manner, would fall under the category of substantive due process
Since the early 1970s case of Roe v. Wade the U.S. Supreme Court has allowed states to place reasonable limits on abortion
What case allowed states to place reasonable restraints on abortion, ie parental signature
NOT! Roe v Wade
The entire concept of privacy came about because of a strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.
The main reason that there is no exact definition of the due process guarantees is that the
Supreme Court only defines the guarantees on a case-by-case basis
Police power, in law, is the right of _______ to make laws necessary for the health, morals, and welfare of the populace
The due process clauses in the U.S. Constitution are contained in the 5th amendment and this other amendment
The Supreme Court ruled that a State must recognize a woman's right to have an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. It then went on to rule that a State may prohibit abortions in public hospitals or clinics if the mother's life or health is not at risk. Explain whether these rulings are consistent.
Some may believe the rulings are consistent because the second point places limits only on where the woman may obtain an abortion in certain cases. It does not overrule her right to have an abortion. Others may believe the rulings are inconsistent because the first defends the rights of women to have abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, while the second puts limits on that right by allowing public hospitals and clinics to deny that right, except in certain cases.
Originally the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, the bill of rights, was a guarantee to this level of government only.
Even though the word privacy is not used in the U.S. Constitution or its amendments, all of the following amendments are associated with privacy, according to the Supreme Court EXCEPT
Explain the balance between police power and individual rights
Police power allows States to provide help and protection for the public in reasonable and fair ways when that help and protection is vital to society as a whole. Individuals' rights are not violated as long as they are not endangering the health and welfare of people, including themselves.
If a person were caught committing a crime, the police would need to secure a search warrant before they could conduct a search.
A police officer has arrested a suspect and produced evidence of wrongdoing. List three questions you would ask the officer to determine whether the freedom and security of the suspect have been violated.
Possible questions: Did you have a warrant to arrest this person and to seize this evidence? Was the arrest based on probable cause? What were the circumstances of the arrest? How did you obtain the evidence? Did you inform the accused of his or her rights?
The central issue in the conflict between the police power and individual rights is whether
individual rights under the 14th Amendment are violated when a State exercises its police power.
According to the interpretation given by the Supreme Court, "due process" not only refers to the procedural rights associated primarily with criminal cases, but also includes "substantive" rights relating to _______.
The guarantees of due process place the burden for meeting these guarantees on
both lawmakers and those who execute the laws.
The exclusionary rule was established to make sure law enforcement "plays by the rules" and does not violent individual rights
The idea that the 13th Amendment applies to the actions of government and of private individuals
was not thought to be the case until more than 100 years after the amendment was ratified.
The right to keep and bear arms has been incorporated and applies to the states, as a result of the due process clause of the 14th amendment
Which of the following statements about the 4th Amendment is TRUE?
It forbids unreasonable searches and seizures.
If there is a reasonable belief by a police officer that a crime has been committed or will be committed, that officer has probable cause.
There are different rules involving search warrants when dealing with a home search versus an automobile search.
What was the aim of the 2nd Amendment?
to further the excellence in military soldiers
to allow guns to be manufactured and sold within the US
Mapp v. Ohio tried to incorporate the 4th amendments protection against the state but was unsuccessful.
Some exceptions to the exclusionary rule have been allowed when minor technical errors in the gathering of evidence occurred, this is known as
The ____ says that evidence gained as a result of an illegal act by police cannot be used against the person from whom it was seized.
In most cases a search warrant is necessary when conducting a drug test on an individual by law enforcement personnel.
Which of the following is TRUE about the 2nd Amendment?
The amendment's original aim was to preserve the idea of the citizen-soldier.
When arresting a person, police must
NOT! always have a warrant in order to search for a weapon.
have probable cause to believe the person is involved in criminal activity.
None of the following involve double jeopardy EXCEPT
trying a person for the same crime when a jury has already declared that person innocent.
In drafting the Bill of Rights, Madison felt so strongly about a person's right to _____________, that he included it in both the 6th and 7th Amendments.
a jury trial
The prohibition of ____ prevents a person from being tried twice for the same crime.Please select the word from the list that best fits the definition
Because the workings of the criminal justice system are very important to democracy, the right to a speedy and public trial refers not just to those accused of crimes, but also to the _______.
The long series of Court rulings on the rights of the accused have established that
all of the above.
Federal judges can invoke __________________, which states that accused felons, considered likely to commit a serious crime while awaiting trial for another crime, can be held without bail.
the law of Preventive Detention
One assumption underlying the establishment of the death penalty as the maximum penalty for treason against the United States is that
the crime of treason can jeopardize the nation's very existence.
According to the Supreme Court, capital punishment
NOT! can be a mandatory penalty for certain crimes.
Which of the following has not been a possible way of executing prisoners in the United States?
Preventative detention is best described as
a law which allows federal judges to order that an accused felon be held without bail if it is believed that they may commit another serious crime.
The issue that tips the scales away from bail toward preventive detention is whether
the defendant is likely to commit a crime before trial.
There have been occasional cases about what constitutes excessive bail or fines, but there is no "bright line" test on this subject. Instead, the high court has indicated that this is a matter of judgment best left to the _______, and if a defendant felt aggrieved, he or
NOT! trial courts
Current polls indicate that two of every three Americans support ____ for those convicted of murder.
Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson's writings in Feiner v. New York conclude that freedom of speech must be protected at all costs, including a breach of the peace.
Neither Congress nor the States can pass a(n) ____ that inflicts punishment without a court trial.
bill of attainder
Why is voting considered to be a major responsibility of a U.S. citizen?
Participation is the basis of democratic government.
The process that grants immigrants the rights and privileges of citizenship is called
The loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process is called
The Declaration of Independence implies that citizens have the responsibility to be informed, vote, respect the rights and property of others, and respect differing ideas from their own.
Based on the three tests used by the Supreme Court to determine whether or not the right of equal protection is being violated, the following scenario violates which test? One state decides to limit the availability of public education to individuals who do not pay property taxes.
In the last half-century, the constitutional command requiring equal protection of the laws for all people has been critical in the great social movements that have secured _______ rights for many in the United States
A school board refusing to hire a 38-year-old, white male as principal of one of the elementary schools in the district would be an example of which of the following?
Affirmative action was a set of government policies designed to assist minorities and women in obtaining admission to schools, government contacts, and/or jobs as a result of past discrimination.
Decisions as a result of Reed v. Reed include all of the following EXCEPT:
Women, other than the immediate family of a tavern owner, may not work as barmaids.
Explain why a city council meeting to discuss hiring more city employees must be open to the public, while a meeting to discuss firing an employee can be closed?
Answers will vary but students should realize that sunshine laws require the former meeting to be open because it involves general policies and decision making, while in the latter meeting the privacy rights of the employee might be involved.
This act requires federal agencies to provide citizens access to public records.
Freedom of Information Act
Which of the following best exemplifies someone fulfilling their civic duties to their country?
a citizen who protests a company's violation of freedom of speech
Even though citizens have a lot of power to participate in government, the average citizen cannot:
remove a government official from office
Citizens do have choices, but if their choices conflict with their duties, the government imposes consequences.
Which of the following best defines the underlined word in the following sentence:
actions by the government when duties are not fulfilled
Jennifer attends school everyday, but when she goes home she decides not to do her homework or study for tests, so she has poor grades. Which of the following statements about Jennifer is true?
Jennifer is not fulfilling her duties to become a productive citizen.
__________ duties include paying national, _________, and local taxes which can include specific taxes such as __________, sales, and property.
Financial, state, and income
Rosario watches Congressional hearings on television. She is angered by one of the bills that congress is about to pass, so she decides to organize a peaceful neighborhood protest. Which of the following is a true statement about Rosario?
Rosario is taking action on her civic responsibilities to stay informed and participate in government.
"When Alex turned eighteen, he immediately enrolled in the selective service in case the government instituted a draft."
mandatory military service
Which of the following should an informed citizen follow in order to fulfill his/her civic responsibilities?
i. Entertainment and sports
ii. Current events
ii and iii only
Educational duties are required of citizens in order to help children become ____________ citizens.
Which of the following is considered a citizen's most important right and civic responsibility?
NOT! respecting others
Dejean tells his boss that he has been summoned for jury duty. His boss tells him that things are busy at work, and that he cannot attend jury duty. Which of the following options represents the best next move for Dejean?
Dejean should respectfully tell his boss that his presence is required and that the employer must let him attend jury duty.
Which option would BEST complete the above chart? (Chart with for outside bubble saying "paying taxes, obeying the law, serving as a legal witness, and getting a basic education" with a blank line in the middle.)
Allison wants to start a reading program at her school where older students read to younger students. Besides helping the children learn how to read, which of the following best explains an unintended benefit of this reading program?
The program will inspire future generations to be active citizens.
Which of the following is NOT a beneficial effect of active citizenship?
NOT! Active citizenship promotes consideration of the greater good.
Shelley supports her local farmer's market by buying as many of her groceries as possible at the market. This act makes Shelley an active citizenship at what level?
Which of the following best defines the underlined word in the following sentence:
"An active citizen is a productive member of society."
making significant contributions
Since he was five, Alejandro has worked with his dad in his carpentry shop. Now sixteen, Alejandro is a highly skilled carpenter. Which of the following are ways that Alejandro could use his talents as an active citizen to better his community?
i. Build a fence for the community garden
ii. Teach a local class on basic carpentry
iii. Sell rocking chairs to his neighbors
i, ii, and iii
Darren's teacher has begun talking about a project in which the students must become a "cultural ambassador" for their communities. Which of the following project ideas would best achieve the purpose of the assignment?
putting on a short play about the history of their community
Even though Dinora is only four years old, she has come to her mom and expressed that she wishes to help people like the homeless man she saw on the street today. Which of the following are options that, with her families help, could promote active citizenship in Dinora?
i. Running a lemonade stand as a fundraiser for the local homeless shelter
ii. Donating Dinora's toys to organizations that give them to needy children
iii. Participating in a "Walk for the Cure" with her parents
i, ii, and iii
Which of the following is NOT an example of active citizenship with a focus on the local community?
supporting the American Red Cross
Describe opportunities for someone wishing to become an active citizen at the local level.
Responses will vary. A sample response follows: There are many opportunities for an active citizen who wishes to become active on a local or national level. Locally, any citizen can help out by volunteering at local homeless shelters or care facilities. These can also include soup kitchens and food banks. Also, local literacy organizations are open for those that want to help tutor adults or children that are struggling to read. There are also many places to volunteer that help children and adults with illnesses. In reality, the possibilities are endless.
Which of the following best defines the underlined word in the following sentence:
"One way an active citizen can help is to support, visit, or thank local veterans."
a former member of the United States Military
Which of the following are examples of active citizenship promoting democracy in America?
i. Peaceful protests against the government
ii. Taking care of neighborhoods in the community
iii. The right to support candidates in elections
i and iii only
If someone is interested in donating their time to a national cause, which of the following would be their best option?
Define active citizenship.
Responses will vary. A sample response follows: An active citizen is someone who participates in his or her community for the betterment of other groups of people. These people could be neighbors, fellow citizens, or international communities. Active citizens get involved through different community efforts and local, national, and international organizations.
Evaluate the following statement by agreeing or disagreeing and defending your view:
"Helping people beyond one's own nation is an important part of being an active American citizen within one's own community."
Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Agree: the active American citizen should realize that one of America's central values is helping people around the world. Therefore, active American citizens should be focused on helping both their communities and people around the world. After all, our world is getting smaller. We can no longer consider other nations as other worlds -- we are connected to them politically and economically. Moreover, helping other nations is easy because there are international organizations such as the American Red Cross that make volunteering simple. Disagree: while active citizenship may include helping people in other countries, the primary responsibilities of an active citizen are their immediate community, local, state, and national affairs. After all, a citizen is not a citizen of the world, but rather a nation. There are plenty of people suffering within American borders and that should be the focus of active American citizens.
Joshua decides to write a letter to his State Senator about famine in the nation of Rwanda. He wants the Senator to be more active in supporting American involvement in Rwanda's situation. By writing this letter, Joshua is being an active citizen on which levels?
state, national, and international
Analyze how active citizenship shapes American society.
Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Active citizenship helps ensure that citizens can have their voices heard in government. It also helps to promote a consciousness outside of our immediate families and communities by offering opportunities to help people around the world. Organizations like UNICEF or the American Red Cross offer active citizens roles and responsibilities that help expand awareness of people's needs outside of American borders. Additionally, in times of crises like Hurricane Katrina and September 11th, it helps America pull together as a nation.
Discuss how citizens can remain active in influencing or participating in government.
Responses will vary. A sample response follows:The easiest way a citizen can stay active in the affairs of government is to vote. Voting is one of the most powerful forms of action available to the common citizen. Additionally, a citizen can choose to become more active in government by supporting particular candidates or issues or, if they feel so motivated, to run for government themselves. Starting peaceful protests or initiating petitions are other ways average citizens can become active in government.
Theresa wants to be more active in her local government. Which of the following is NOT a way Theresa can be more active in local government?
removing a candidate from office
Being an active citizen means contributing something meaningful like your time and efforts to society.
"To give a mandatory preference to members of either sex over members of the other. . .is to make the very kind of arbitrary legislative choice forbidden by the Equal Protection Clause."
— Chief Justice Warren Burger, 1971
In Chief Justice Warren Burger's decision in Reed v. Reed, a new standard for judging constitutionality in sex discrimination cases was formed.
Which of the following is not a way to become a citizen?
born in another country and illegally entering the country
In a democracy, while the state protects the rights of its citizens, in return, the citizens give the state their _______.
______________ exists when people are treated differently because of race, gender, age, ethnicity, religion, or disability.
The Supreme Court requires the state to prove a law is reasonable when the law involves a(n) _______ ______________, such as requiring African Americans but not whites to ride in the back of the bus.