commercial distribution port; hub for Chinese goods such as porcelain, silk, and camphor; pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and raw materials suh as sandalwood from the Moluccas.
Redistribution centers where goods would be shipped for temporary storage while awaiting distribution
European trader who traveled the East and wrote about his encounter with the Great Khan; fueled the European interest in the Eastern trade
Admiral Zheng He
Celebrated for his naval expeditions between 1405 and 1433. Led seven voyages to achieve the Emperor's diplomatic, political, geographical and commercial goals. (Chinese Muslim) First voyage took 317 ships and sailed as far as Egypt and brought back books, spices and even a giraffe for the Imperial Zoo
successor to Sundiata Keita (founder of the kingdom of Mali); used his vast wealth to invest in the building of new mosques and religious schools, making Timbuktu a renowned center of culture and learning; under his rule, the rights of Muslim women were also much higher in terms of social acceptability and freedom.
Capitol of the Byzantine Empire, captured by the Ottoman Turks in May of 1453; sent shock waves through Europe; renamed Istanbul and became the Ottoman Empire
Sultan who captured Constantinople in May 1453, sending shockwaves through Europe; the city was renamed Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Led to Portugal's phenomenal success in the spice trade; younger son of the King. Supported the study of geography and navigation and sponsored annual expeditions down the western coast of Africa. Never personally participated in voyages, but his support ensured that Portugal did not abandon the effort despite early dissapointments.
"General History of the Indies"
Detailed eye-witness account of plants, animals, and peoples; written by Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo
Small, light, three masted sailing ship; slower than the galley but held more cargo; much more maneuverable and could easily hold cannons.
Ptolemy's writings on Geography; reintroduced by Arab scholars in 1410; provided significant improvements over medieval cartography, showing the world as round and introducing the idea of latitude and longitude to plot position accurately.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who commanded a fleet of four ships in search of a sea route to the Indian Ocean. Rounded Cape of Good Hope and sailed up the east coast of Africa; sailed across the Arabian Sea to the port of Calicut in India, with the help of an Indian guide. Returned with loads of spices and Indian cloth.
Significance- proved that lucrative trade was viable via the Cape route.
Genoese mariner, 1451-1506; sailed under the authority of the Spanish crown. He was looking for a passage to the Indies by sailing West. Discovered Cuba, the Canary Islands, Hispaniola etc.
Significance- Lead to the explosion of Spanish exploration and discovered North America
Sante Fe Capitulations
Capitulations that named Columbus viceroy over any territory he might discover and gave him one-tenth of the material rewards of the journey.
Significance- Lead to Columbus being charged with corruption which turned the land over to the control of the Crown
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that gave Spain everything to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic, and Portugal everything to the East.
Significance- Led to Portugal acquiring of Brazil
Portuguese mariner commissioned by Spanish ruler, Charles V. Tried to find a direct route to the spices of the Moluccas of the coast of Asia. Sailed southwest across the Atlantic to Brazil; then braved the Straight of Magellan and sailed into the Pacific.
Significance- First man to circumnavigate the world
Spanish adventurer who crossed into mainland Mexico with 600 men, 17 horses and ten cannons. This marked the beggining of the Spanish conquest of Aztec Mexico. Landed at Vera Cruz in February 1519. Entered Tenochtitlan, Aztec capitol, in November.
Significance- Secured Mexico for Spain
Capitol city of the Aztec Empire; larger than any European city of the time and was the heart of the civilization.
Creator-god of the Incas. When the Spanish invaders landed they said they were sent by God, which the Incas associated with this god.
Conquistador who landed in Peru on May 13, 1532. Arranged for a meeting with Atauhualpa, the new Incan emperor, captured him, and held him for ransom. They then killed him which resulted in decades of uprisings, which the Spanish crown had under control by the 1570's
Significance- Secured Peru for Spain
System in which the Spanish Crown granted the conquerers the right ton employ groups of Amerindians as agricultural or mining laborers or as tribute payers. Loophole that allowed "legal slavery".
Significance- Led to the unintended killing of Amerindians
The exchange of plants, animals and diseases brought on by trade and the migration of peoples.
Significance- Introduced things such as goats, into the New World and exotic plants into the Old World
The massive fleet commanded by the Spanish. Dubbed the la felicissima armada, or "the most fortunate fleet". Sent on a planned atttack on England. The English however, already had a fleet in the Channel and were easily able to defeat the Armada, before they even made it to the Netherlands, where they were to help with troop transport.
King John II
Under him, the Portuguese established trading posts and forts on the gold-rich Guinea coast and penetrated into the African continent all the way to Timbuktu.
dispatched thirteen ships under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral, assisted by Diaz, to set up trading posts in India.
Genoese merchant living in London; sailed for Braziil but discovered Newfoundland. The next year he returned and explored the New England coast.
`Pope Sixtus V
promised to pay Phillip II one million gold ducats the moment Spanish troops landed in England—all of this occurring after Sixtus learned of the death of Mary Queen of Scots.
Agreed to a truce, in effect recognizing the independence of the United Provinces
A school of thought founded on the doubt that total certainty or definitive knowledge is ever attainable. The _____ic is cautious and critical and suspends judgement.
Michel de Montaigne
descended from a bourgeois family that had made a fortune selling salted herring and wine and in 1477 had purchased the title and property of Montaigne in Gascony; ______ received a classical education, studied law, and secured a judicial appointment in 1554; he later developed a new literary genre called the "essay" which comes from the French word essayer, which means "to test or try"—to express his thoughts and ideas.
increased pressures of taxation and warfare turned bread riots into these armed uprisings.
written by Thomas Hobbes, expressed a theoretical justification for absolute monarchical authority, arguing that any limits on divisions of government power would lead only to paralysis or civil war.
Edict of Nantes
issued by Henry IV, and allowed Huguenots to have the right of free worship, by allowing them to build 150 fortified towns where they could worship in safety;
son of Marie de' Medici and Henry IV; came to power as a child, so his mother, Marie de' Medici, became his regent; Marie appointed Richelieu to the council of ministers at this time
royal commissioners who painstakingly collected information from local communities for Paris and delivered royal orders from the newer judicial nobility called the noblesse de robe.
Noblesse de Robe
"robe nobility"; the new judicial nobility who came about during the rule of Louis XIII.
Marie de' Medici
mother of Louis XIII; became regent while her son was a child; appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers
means "slingshot" or "catapult", and a _____eur was a street urchin who threw mud at the passing carriages of the rich; this term began to be applied to the groups of people that opposed the policies of the government; this began among the noblesse de robe, the robe nobility, when the judges of the Parisian high law court (the Parlement) rejected Anne and Marzarin's proposal to raise new revenues by rescinding judicial salaries. The arrest of several magistrates sparked a popular riot in the capital, whose inhabitants had suffered to meet the costs of war. With the boy king, Anne of Austria fled the capital for safety. Essentially traditional and conservative, the magistrates agreed to a compromise with the government that largely favored their demands (SEE NOTES FOR WHOLE STORY).
"sword nobility" who were also angered by the increasing powers of central government; a law had been passed that forbade dueling—this really pissed them off.
longest ruling ruler in European history; known as the "Sun King" because he shed light on all in his domain; larger than life ruler, people thought he was huge, although he was only around 5"6; His mother was Anne of Austria; fervently believed in the divine right of kings to rule; very hard working king; built the palace of Versailles outside of Paris. This was a huge palace that he used to make the statement, "I am here, and am imposing my power over nature." Versailles was used also to keep the most powerful nobles in check and under Louis's supervision; he sought glory above almost all else, which brought about many wars and defeat late in his life.
Divine Right of Kings
God had established kings as his rulers on earth, and they were answerable ultimately to God alone. Though kings were divinely anointed and shared in the sacred nature of divinity, they could not simply do as they pleased. They had to obey God's laws and rule for the good of people.
A collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In seventeenth and eighteenth century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply.
(provincial) representative bodies of clergy, nobles, and commoners, which held the authority to negotiate with the Crown over taxes. In provinces without ______, the king held direct control over taxation through his intendants
Francois le Tellier
later known as marquis de Louvois; appointed by Louis XIV as secretary of state for war in 1666; he created a professional army that was modern in the sense that the French state, rather than private nobles, employed the soldiers; he also utilized several methods in recruiting troops: 1) dragooning, in which press gangs seized men off the streets, 2) conscription, and after 1688, 3) lottery.
Treaty of Nijmegen
here, Louis gained additional Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comte.
War of the Spanish Succession
war that lasted from 1701-1713; In 1700, childless Spanish king Charles II (r. 1665-1700) died, opening a struggle for control of Spain and its colonies. His will bequeathed the Spanish crown to Phillip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson. This testament violated a prior treaty by which the European powers had agreed to divide the Spanish possessions between the king of France and the Holy Roman emperor, both brothers-in-law of Charles II. Claiming that he was following both Spanish national and French dynastic interests, Louis broke the treaty and accepted the will. In response to this, in 1701, the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians formed a grand alliance against Louis XIV. The allied powers united to prevent France from becoming too strong in Europe and to check France's expanding commercial power in North America.
Peace of Utrect
Signed in 1713, ended the War of the Spanish Succession; applied the principle of partition; it had IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL CONSEQUENCES: It represented the balance of power principle in operation, setting limits on the extent to which any one power—in this case, France—could expand.
Spanish national taxes
expelled converted muslims, known as Moriscos, from Spain in 1609(around 300,000 people); this satisfied his catholic conscience, but wrecked much of the productivity in Spain by expelling some of its most talented workers/merchants
Thirty Years War
under this ruler, the Portuguese succeeded in gaining independence from Hapsburg rule
Treaty of the Pyrenees
ended the French-Spanish conflict; Spain was compelled to surrender extensive territories to France; this treaty marked the decline of Spain as a great power.
written by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616), this novel of a character living in a military dream world filled with glory, and beautiful maidens; this book represented a more negative Spanish view around this time
In the sixteenth century, the Spanish Crown divided its new world territories into four ______s; these new administrative divisions consisted of: New Spain, which consisted of Mexico, Central America, and present-day California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, with the capital at Mexico city; Peru, originally all the lands in continentall South America, later reduced to the territory of modern Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Ecuador, with the viceregal seat at Lima; New Granada, including present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and after 1739, Ecuador, with Bogota as its administrative center; and La Plata, consisting of Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, with Buenos Aires as the capital; each of these territories was presided over by a viceroy, or imperial governor, who exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of the sovereign in Madrid.
presided over by the viceroy, this was a board of twelve to fifteen judges that served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body
reform-minded Spanish king who introduced the system of intendants, pioneered by the Bourbon kings of France, to the New World territories; these royal officials possessed broad military, administrative, and financial authority within their intendancies and were responsible not to the viceroy but to the monarchy in Madrid.
where the Spanish crown claimed one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America
period in art and music throughout most of Europe(except Britain and France) characterized by very emotional, thoughtful qualities; name comes from the Portuguese word for "Odd-Shaped Pearl" in reference to what art critics of the time viewed as "overblown" and "unbalanced"
(southern Baroque painter) painted dramatic religious imagery; rebel and fighter; painted paintings such as "Calling of St. Matthew". This painting was very dramatic/theatrical; Figures jump out at sharp, dramatic angles
Peter Paul Rubens
from northern Europe; returned to Antwerp, Netherlands, where he establishes his reputation with a series of dramatic religious paintings. These were brilliant, colorful, and very violent; His secular paintings also had these same striking qualities; he liked to paint the human figure; he became involved in international diplomacy; painted a series of paintings on the "life" of Mary de Medici of France; becomes knighted in England later in his life
brilliant sculptor; also decorated the papal church of Saint Peters over the course of 50 years; he becomes the most respected architect and sculptor in Europe
wrote "Orfeo", the first operatic masterpiece in 1607; he utilizes recitative(sung speech) to make his scenes more dramatic; opera becomes the most popular form of entertainment in Europe after this
comes to Amsterdam in 1632; he painted doctors, Amsterdam city guard, etc. These people symbolized power and pride at the time; he uses strong lighting a dark backgrounds to create a greater dramatic effect; begins his career with several dramatic large scale etchings(typical baroque style); but something turned him toward a more inward looking art; he becomes increasingly introspective—doing many selfportraits.
virtuoso organist; great improviser; his music was grand and spacious; bach composed a large amount of instrumental music; like much baroque art, his music was very lively and spirited; he later performs a cantata in one of the areas major churches, every weekend ( a different one each week); in 1729 Bach's St. Matthews passion(played on easter) is heard; his music expresses a deeply personal religious belief; recreates the life of Christ in his music
born in 1685 like bach; more interested in opera; moves to England where he is loved; his music is heard at ceremonies at st. paul's cathedral; wrote "The Water Music"; devotes most of his time to writing operas, written in Italian and performed by Italian singers; at this point the most interesting part of the opera was the Aria where a single singer would improvise their vocal line while expressing a single powerful emotion; Italian opera does not remain popular in England however; To the growing English middle class, Italian opera seems over the top, and foreign; Handel then begins writing Oratorios, which were religious, less theatrical pieces, written in English; Handel wrote the Oratorio "Messiah" about the life of Jesus. It contained "The Voice that Crieth in the Wilderness", "Ev'ry Valley", and "Hallelujah". The "Hallelujah" chorus is still wildly popular in the modern day.
acquired his position(secretary of War) from his father, Michel LeTellier, who was secretary of war from 1643-1677; his family was a family who very clearly demonstrated the interplay between the states rationalizing impulses and its reliance on very traditional patterns of nepotism and patronage.
the art and literature of the age of Louis XIV; completely expressed the artistic preferences of Louis XIV; most music and art is not very good from this period; plays ARE good from this time period. The most common types of plays were Comedies and Tragedies.
his orchestral works combined lively animation with the restrained austerity of typical French classicalism.
his harpsichord and organ works possessed the regal grandeur that Louis loved
his solemn religious music entertained Louis at meals.
wrote comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature
wrote tragedies that displayed a common theme of good and evil; these were based of the tragic dramas of Greek and Roman legend
a state where there is a representative assembly, and there are certain understandings that governments are limited in what they can do. This could either be written down, or simply understood. You can have either a "Constitutional monarchy" or a constitutional state without a monarch called a "Republic".
previously named _____ Stuart; he succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I as the ruler of England; he was well educated, learned, and with thirty five years experience as king of Scotland, politically shrewd as well; however, he was not as interested in displaying the majesty of monarchy as Elizabeth had been; he was devoted to the divine right of kings; he was a poor judge of character; his Scottish accent served as a disadvantage as well; the English house of commons was also very different during the rule of him, and his son Charles I.
Christians who wished to "purify" the Anglican church from any and all Catholic influence
archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Charles I; tried to impose elaborate ritual on all churches; He insisted on complete uniformity of church services and enforced that uniformity through an ecclesiastical court called the "Court of High Comission."
English Civil War
tested whether sovereignty in England was to reside in the king or in Parliament
New Model Army
in 1645, English parliament reorganized its forces into this ________ under the leadership of Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, a member of the House of Commons who had emerged as a military leader during the war.
a republic government proclaimed after the death of Charles, thus ending the Kingship
the rule of Cromwell (1653-1658) which was almost a military dictatorship
Instrument of Government
The constitution prepared by the army that invested executive power in a lord protector (Cromwell) and a council of state
(1651) required that English goods be transported on English ships or from the country that the goods originated
(1673) according to this, those who refused to receive the Eucharist of the Church of England could not vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend universities, or even assemble for meetings.
(1688-1689) Called this by the English becuase of how it replace once king with another with minimal bloodshed. It also represented the destruction of the idea of a divine right monarchy
Bill of Rights
A list of principles formulated in response to Stuart Absolutism:
a- no standing army in peace-time
b- no quartering of soldiers
c- law cannot be suspended by the king
d. only protestants can bear arms
e. judges cannot be fired by the king
f. kings cannot arrest someone without due process of law
g. the crown cannot interfere with parliament in terms of elections and debate
h. kings must be protestant (most important one)
Second Treatise of Civil Government
the glorious revolution found its best defense in this work by political philosopher, John Locke. Locke(1632-1704) maintained that people set up a civil government to protect life, liberty and property. A government that oversteps its proper function- protecting the natural rights of life, liberty and property- becomes a tyranny.
a federal assembly which handled matters of foreign affairs such as war, but did not possess sovereign authority; all issues had to be referred back to the local estates for approval
the representative appointed by the Estates General in each province
Dutch East India Company
a joint stock company formed in 1602 by a group of regents. The investors each received a percentage of the profits proportional to the amount of money they had put in; within half a century the _______________________ had cut heavily into Portuguese trading in east Asia.
King William III of England (William of Orange)