Ancient Chinese Civilization

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Great Wall of China

Although the construction of this monument began during the Qin Dynasty, it was not finalized until the Ming Dynasty.

Dualism

The state of being dual or consisting of two parts; division into two.

Legalism

This philosophy claims that humans are evil and need to be controlled using laws in order to prevent chaos. Centered on power and harsh laws.

Ying Yang

The symbol of duality. Yin= female, dark, passive. Yang= male, bright, active. They are not in conflict, but depend on each other.

Han Dynasty

Borders expanded to include Manchuria, Korea, and southeast Asia. Civil service system based on exams was created. Government regulated prices and had control over building plans and production of goods. The Silk Road was created. This was the longest lasting Chinese dynasty.

Mandate of Heaven

Rulers believed that the god of Heaven determined who should rule China.

Qin Dynasty

Measurements, standardized currency language, built roads, palaces, terra cotta, warriors, built walls (great wall), autocracy, millions forced to work, military revolt led by Liu.

Confucianism

Philosophy that puts emphasis on familial relationships as the foundation of society. Education is important to the formation of a person's character. Respect for one's elders, and reverence for the past and one's elders. Centered on virtue. Creator= Confucius.

Goby Desert

Physical boundary between modern-day China and Mongolia.

Animism

The belief that spirits inhabit everything.

Silk Road

Famous and prosperous trade route stretching from China across central Asia to the Mediterranean Region where jade and silk were sold to wealthy Greeks and Romans for gold, silver, and wool. (Han Dynasty)

Taoism

Philosophy dealing with the duality and the ideal state of all things in the universe is the state of harmony. (Created by Lao Tzu)

Ideographs

Consisted of two parts: a signifier, or idea sign, and a phonetic sound sign.

Huang He

(Yellow River)
Nickname: "China's Sorrow" because it is prone to devastating and unpredictable floods.

Chang Jiang

(Yangtze River) 3rd largest river in the world. Is navigable.

Xi River

(Chi River) smallest of the three. It is navigable, making it commercially important.

Xia Dynasty

Legendary dynasty established by Yu that is said to have been the foundation of hereditary monarchial rule in China.

Bureaucracy

A government organized into different levels and tasks. (The Shang created a complex bureaucracy.)

Shangdi

A great god that controls human destiny.

Zhou Dynasty

Overthrew the Shang Dynasty; thought they were unfit to rule. Believed in Mandate of Heaven. Ended because of civil war and disunity. Dualism evolves.

Waring States Period (403 B.C.-221 B.C.)

A period of time in China marred by civil war before unification.

Shin Huang Ti =

"First Emperor"

Autocracy

Government where the emperor holds total power.

Taoist ideas, equal rights, and equal land spread leads to...

Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Warlords take advantage of...

Problems and overthrow royal family, beginning the Three Kingdoms Period.

Most important factor in Chinese society?

Family, not individual.

Each family probably kept a careful

Genealogy, record of its family tree.

What did the education system rely on?

Text that trained scholars and civil servants and created a common culture all across China. These texts were known as the Five Classics.

Instruments-

Chinese astronomers built them and used them to track planet movements.

Another inventions:

Seismograph (registers earthquakes), paper, sundial, the water clock, and the process of printing.

Chinese also discovered-

Substances to dye cloth, glazing pottery to make it more durable, and medicines based on herbs and minerals, and acupuncture.

Pictographs

Drawings of objects.

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