Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life

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Biology - Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Go Vikings!!

Matter

anything that takes up space (has volume) and has mass

Atom

smallest particle of matter that has the properties of that particular kind of matter

Neutron

Neutral part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom

Proton

Postive part of an atom; has mass value of 1; found in nucleus of atom

Electron

Negative part of atom; no mass value; found orbiting nucleus of atom

Atomic number

# of protons

Atomic mass

# protons + # of neutrons

Ion

Charged atom; has unequal number of protons and electrons

Element

substances made up of only 1 type of atom

Molecule

smallest part of a compound that can exists and still have the properties of that compound

Compound

Substances that contain 2 or more different elements chemically joined together

Chemical symbol

Letter or letters used to represent each element; 1st letter is always CAPITALIZED and 2nd is always lower cased

Chemical formula

symbols and numbers used to show the numbers and types of atoms in a compound or molecule

Chemical equation

Used to show a chemical reaction when 2 or more elements or compounds react to form new substances

Physical change

A change in size, shape or form that does NOT change the properties of the substance

Chemical change

A change in matter in which a new substance is formed with unique properties

Inorganic compounds

have no carbon; found mostly in non-living things

Organic compounds

Have carbon in chains or rings; makeup living things

Carbohydrates

Main source of "quick" energy; composed of C,H,O; 2 main groups - sugars and starches

Lipids

Source of stored energy - releases more energy / molecule than carbs.; Made up of C,H,O

Phospholipids

molecules that make up cell membrane; "head" region is attracted to water while "tail" region is not

Proteins

Made up of amino acids (CHON) provide all structure and function of cells and organisms

Enzymes

special types of proteins that regulate chemical reactions without being used up

Nucleic Acid

Store all genetic information needed for a cell to make proteins; DNA & RNA

van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

cohesion

attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

an attraction between molecules of different substances

pH scale

A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution; it is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions.

acid

compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution

base

compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution

buffer

weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH

monomer

building block or small unit of a polymer; can be linked into chains

polymer

a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together

amino acid

monomers (building blocks) of protein molecules

chemical reaction

The making and breaking of chemical bonds, resulting in the creation of new substances.

reactant

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

activation energy

minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction

catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction

substrate

a substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction

enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

active site

the site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate

temperature

an important factor in enzyme activity

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