Pyruvate is first converted into this compound upon entering the mitochondrion through pyruvate grooming; its acetyl group is fed into the Kreb's cycle for further oxidation.
Requiring oxygen (referring to organisms, environments, or cellular processes).
A type of fermentation in which pyruvate is converted to ethanol by first releasing CO2, which is reduced by NADH to ethanol, NAD+ is produced for use in glycolysis.
Does not require oxygen (referring to organisms, environments, or cellular processes).
An enzyme that makes ATP, uses the energy of the concentration gradient of H+.
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.
Most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel.
The process in which energy stored in the form of an H+ gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as ATP synthesis.
Citric Acid Cycle
A catabolic pathway that takes place within the mitochondrial matrix and completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts, an electron carrier between ubiquinone and oxygen in the ETC.
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
Catabolic process that involves a partial degradation of sugars, occurs without the use of oxygen.
First stage of cellular respiration, a catabolic pathway that occurs in the cytosol and begins the degradation of glucose by breaking it into two molecules of pyruvate.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
A type of fermentation in which pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH with no release of CO2.
A coenzyme and an electron acceptor in respiration, functions as an oxidizing agent during respiration, helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
The loss of electrons from a substance in a redox reaction.
A mode of ATP synthesis powered by the redox reactions of the ETC, an inorganic phosphate is added to ADP.
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction; oxidizes the reducing agent.
The H+ gradient that results from H+ being taken up and released into the surrounding solution of the intermembrane space at certain steps along the ETC.
A reaction that involves the oxidation of one substance and the reduction of another.
The electron donor in a redox reaction; reduces the oxidizing agent.
The addition of electrons to a substance in a redox reaction.
A mode of ATP synthesis that forms a smaller amount of ATP directly in a few reactions of glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle, occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group froma substrate molecule to ADP.