This is a congentital defect in males in which there is malpositioing of the erthral opening, it is locatied n the ventral surface of the hypospadias
function of the seminal vesicles
Adds fluid to the ejaculate to propel the sperm forward. The fructrose secreted by the seminal vesicles provides the energy for sperm mobility
the function of the cremaster muscles and the pampiniform plexus of the testes
The paminform plexus adsorbs heat from the arterial blood cooling it as it enters the testes. The cremaster muscles, which respond to decrease in testicular temperature move the testes closer to the body
Role of nitric oxide in erections
It involves increased inflow of blood into the corpora cavernosa due to relacation of th etravuclar smooth muscle that surrounds the sinusoidal spaces and compression of the veins controlling outflow of blood from the venous plexus
What are the major sources of estrogen in premenopausal and menopausal women?
Ovaries and adipose tissue
What hormones would be used to treat exceptionally tall children by effecting early epiphyseal closure?
Estrogen and testosterone
________ is produced and secreted by the interstitial Leydig cells in the testes, while under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH)
Describe the functions of testosterone.
Differentiation of the male genital tract in fetal development, induction of secondary male sex characteristics and promotion of musculoskeletal growth
What is testicular torsion and what is it a common consequence of?
A twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testis; It is consequence of cryptorchidism along with infertility and malignancy
Describe the causes of scrotal cancer.
It has been linked to occupation (chimney sweep), poor hygiene and chronic inflammation
What cancer is the most common nonskin cancer in the US affecting men 65 years of age and older?
A hydrocele forms when excess fluid collects between the layers of the ____________.
Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome are conditions that alter estrogen metabolism and elevate estrogen levels. Increased estrogen levels are associated with ______________________.
Undesired or harmful effects of supraphysiologic doses of androgens including estrodial and estrone are_________, ___________ and _______________.
Acne, decreased testicular size, azoospermia, and a change in libido
What condition is characterized by heavy bleeding during and between menstrual cycles.
Describe the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle.
After ovulation, the follicle collapses, and the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle begins. The granulose cells are invaded by blood vessels and yellow lipochrome-bearing cels from the theca layer. A arapid accumulation of blood and fluid forms a mass called the corpus luteum. During the luteal stage, progesterone is secreted from the corpus luteum
What are the local effects of progesterone on reproductive organs?
The glandular development of the lobular and alveolar tissue of the breasts and the cyclic glandular development of the endometrium
What role does oxytocin and prolactin play in a woman's body?
Secretion of milk of alveolar cells, which are under the influenced of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. Milk ejection from the ductile system occurs in response to the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary
__________________ is an abnormal, painful, sustained erection that can lead to ischemic damage of penile structures.
What hormone(s) are produced after ovulation when the follicle becomes lutinized as the corpus lutium?
Estrogen and progesterone
A preponderance of evidence suggests a causal link between both cervical cancer, penile cancer and ____________________.
HPV - (human papillomavirus )
What are causes of male infertility?
They include: varicocele, ejaculatory dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, infection, immunologic problems (IE antisperm antibodies), obstruction (including wearing tight jeans), and congenital anomalies
Infertility, malignancy and testicular torsion are long term consequences of ___________________________.
When does gonadotrophin-stimulated production of testosterone normally begin?
Between 10-12 years of age
The ________________is the site of the Skene glands, which have a lubricating function.
The wall of the uterus is composed of three layers (__________, ____________ and __________) one (__________) of which extends to form a cul-de-sac.
The perimetrium, the myometrium, and the endometrium; the permetrium
What are common causes of vaginitis in women of childbearing age?
Candida albicans, trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis
What structure secretes fluid and serves as a buffer and prolongs the life of spermatozoa once they reach the vagina?
Gradual cessation of ovarian function and diminished estrogen levels during perimenopause and menopause may lead to ______________.
What is the function of inhibin in males?
Inhibits FSH production leading to reduction in spermatogenesis
Why might antibiotic therapy cause vulvovaginal candiasis in females?
Suppresses the normal protective flora
What is a complication associated with women having chlamydial infections?
Pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility or ectopic pregnancy
What are the symptoms associated with trichomoniasis?
Coious, frothy, malodorous, green or yellow discharge
Factors that increase the risk of tubal pregnancy include?
Pelvic inflammatory disease, therapeutic abortion, tubal ligation or reversal and fertility drugs
Describe testicular torsion? What structures are affected?
Two risk factors are trauma and strenuous physical activity
Twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testes
What is endometriosis?
The condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside the uterus.
Factors that increase the risk of tubal pregnancy include? What is the greatest danger?
Pelvic inflammatory disease, therapeutic abortion, tubal ligation or reversal, and fertility drugs. Tubal rupture
What is a chocolate cyst and where does it form?
In the ovary, the endometrial tissue may form cysts (IE endometriomas filled with old blood that resembles chocolate syrup [chocolate cysts])
What hormone is responsible for fluid retention in females during PMS?
Increased aldosterone secretion