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hypospadias

This is a congentital defect in males in which there is malpositioing of the erthral opening, it is locatied n the ventral surface of the hypospadias

function of the seminal vesicles

Adds fluid to the ejaculate to propel the sperm forward. The fructrose secreted by the seminal vesicles provides the energy for sperm mobility

the function of the cremaster muscles and the pampiniform plexus of the testes

The paminform plexus adsorbs heat from the arterial blood cooling it as it enters the testes. The cremaster muscles, which respond to decrease in testicular temperature move the testes closer to the body

Role of nitric oxide in erections

It involves increased inflow of blood into the corpora cavernosa due to relacation of th etravuclar smooth muscle that surrounds the sinusoidal spaces and compression of the veins controlling outflow of blood from the venous plexus

What nervous system controls erection?

Parasympathetic Nervous system

What are the major sources of estrogen in premenopausal and menopausal women?

Ovaries and adipose tissue

The secretion of FSH and LH are under the control of ____________.

Gonadotrophin-releasing factor

What hormones would be used to treat exceptionally tall children by effecting early epiphyseal closure?

Estrogen and testosterone

________ is produced and secreted by the interstitial Leydig cells in the testes, while under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH)

Testosterone

Describe the functions of testosterone.

Differentiation of the male genital tract in fetal development, induction of secondary male sex characteristics and promotion of musculoskeletal growth

The _____________ houses the testes and regulates their temperature.

Scrotum

What describes herniation of the bladder into the vagina?

Cystocele

What is testicular torsion and what is it a common consequence of?

A twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testis; It is consequence of cryptorchidism along with infertility and malignancy

What is the most common cause of cancer in males between the ages of 15-35?

Testicular cancer

Describe the causes of scrotal cancer.

It has been linked to occupation (chimney sweep), poor hygiene and chronic inflammation

What cancer is the most common nonskin cancer in the US affecting men 65 years of age and older?

Prostate cancer

A hydrocele forms when excess fluid collects between the layers of the ____________.

Tunica vaginalis

Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome are conditions that alter estrogen metabolism and elevate estrogen levels. Increased estrogen levels are associated with ______________________.

Endometrial cancer

Undesired or harmful effects of supraphysiologic doses of androgens including estrodial and estrone are_________, ___________ and _______________.

Acne, decreased testicular size, azoospermia, and a change in libido

In order for embryonic gonads to become testes, what is required?

A Y chromosome

What condition is characterized by heavy bleeding during and between menstrual cycles.

Menometrorrhagia

Describe the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle.

After ovulation, the follicle collapses, and the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle begins. The granulose cells are invaded by blood vessels and yellow lipochrome-bearing cels from the theca layer. A arapid accumulation of blood and fluid forms a mass called the corpus luteum. During the luteal stage, progesterone is secreted from the corpus luteum

What are the local effects of progesterone on reproductive organs?

The glandular development of the lobular and alveolar tissue of the breasts and the cyclic glandular development of the endometrium

What role does oxytocin and prolactin play in a woman's body?

Secretion of milk of alveolar cells, which are under the influenced of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. Milk ejection from the ductile system occurs in response to the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary

__________________ is an abnormal, painful, sustained erection that can lead to ischemic damage of penile structures.

Priapism

What hormone(s) are produced after ovulation when the follicle becomes lutinized as the corpus lutium?

Estrogen and progesterone

What is a term for benign neoplasms of smooth muscle in the uterus?

Leiomyomas

What is usually recognized as the leading cause of osteoporosis?

Decreased estrogen levels

During lactation, milk is secreted by ____________________.

Alveolar tissue of the breast

What forms when excess fluid collects between the layers of the tunica vaginalis?

A hydrocele

What is oogenisis?

Generation of the primordial ova by mitotic division occurs during fetal life

A preponderance of evidence suggests a causal link between both cervical cancer, penile cancer and ____________________.

HPV - (human papillomavirus )

What is stored in the ampulla of the vas deferens?

sperm

What are causes of male infertility?

They include: varicocele, ejaculatory dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, infection, immunologic problems (IE antisperm antibodies), obstruction (including wearing tight jeans), and congenital anomalies

Infertility, malignancy and testicular torsion are long term consequences of ___________________________.

Cryptochidism

When does gonadotrophin-stimulated production of testosterone normally begin?

Between 10-12 years of age

________________ serves as a storage reservoir for sperm.

Vas deferens

The ________________is the site of the Skene glands, which have a lubricating function.

Urethral opening

The wall of the uterus is composed of three layers (__________, ____________ and __________) one (__________) of which extends to form a cul-de-sac.

The perimetrium, the myometrium, and the endometrium; the permetrium

High levels of what hormone exert a negative feedback loop on FSH?

Estrogen

What are common causes of vaginitis in women of childbearing age?

Candida albicans, trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis

What structure secretes fluid and serves as a buffer and prolongs the life of spermatozoa once they reach the vagina?

Prostate gland

Gradual cessation of ovarian function and diminished estrogen levels during perimenopause and menopause may lead to ______________.

Vasomotor instability

What is the role of the fructose in seminal fluid?

Sperm mobility

What is the function of inhibin in males?

Inhibits FSH production leading to reduction in spermatogenesis

What microorganism causes candidiasis?

A yeast

Why might antibiotic therapy cause vulvovaginal candiasis in females?

Suppresses the normal protective flora

What is a complication associated with women having chlamydial infections?

Pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility or ectopic pregnancy

What are the symptoms associated with trichomoniasis?

Coious, frothy, malodorous, green or yellow discharge

Factors that increase the risk of tubal pregnancy include?

Pelvic inflammatory disease, therapeutic abortion, tubal ligation or reversal and fertility drugs

Which structure in the female anatomy begins to dilate upon parturition (birth)?

Cervix

Describe testicular torsion? What structures are affected?

Two risk factors are trauma and strenuous physical activity
Twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testes

How many spermatozoa are produced by one spermatognium in spermatogenesis?

4

What kind of cells does a Pap smear detect?

Cancerous and precancerous cells

What is endometriosis?

The condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside the uterus.

What hormone surge causes ovulation?

LH

Factors that increase the risk of tubal pregnancy include? What is the greatest danger?

Pelvic inflammatory disease, therapeutic abortion, tubal ligation or reversal, and fertility drugs. Tubal rupture

What is a chocolate cyst and where does it form?

In the ovary, the endometrial tissue may form cysts (IE endometriomas filled with old blood that resembles chocolate syrup [chocolate cysts])

What hormone is responsible for fluid retention in females during PMS?

Increased aldosterone secretion

Untreated syphilis might cause complications in what organs?

Aorta, liver, and central nervous system

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