Sociology 101 chapters 1-4

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Sociology

Systematic or scientific study of human society or social behavior.

How is Sociology different from other social sciences?

It has its own subject matter.

Emily Durhiem

French sociologist and is associated with the concept of social facts.

Social fact

A constraint or force that impacts or puts pressure on human life.

Natural sciences

Knowledge of nature.

Mechanical sciences

Knowledge of manufactured nature.

Social Science

Knowledge of human nature.

Three Main Types Social Facts

Anatomical, institutionalized and non-instutitionalized.

Anatomical

Contraint of nature.

Institutionalized

Contraint of institutions.

Non-instutionalized

Social pressures.

Examples of Anatomical

Natural environment, food, water, land, welfare, climate, altitude.

Example of Institutionalized

Law, family, economy, politics, media, religion and medicine.

Example of Non-Institutionalized

Fads (haircuts), crazes (bubble gum), panics huge gatherings & movements of people.

Four characteristics of all sciences:

Objective observation, passionate practitioners, systematic research methods and measurements.

Theories

A coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena: Einstein's theory of relativity.

Three Main Classical theoretical traditions

Structural, Conflict and Symbolism.

Characteristic of Structural

This approach conceptualizes different structures in society falling apart.

Characteristic of Conflict

Emphasizes the view that life involves major struggles and conflicts between classes of people.

Characteristic of Symbolism

This approach strives to understand the understanding the meanings the motivations people have for the actions they take.

Three contemporary perspectives

The feminist, queer and postmodern theories.

Manifest function

Obvious and intended functions of events and institution society.

Latent Function

Non-obivous and unintended consequences of events and institutions in society.

Example of Manifest Function

Getting a education.

Example of Latent Function

Football games, joining a fraternity and homecoming.

Social Analyst

Analyzing society.

Everyday actor

One who has the practical knowledge needed to get through daily life but not necessarily the scientific or technical knowledge of how things work.

Theoretical perspective in sociology:

Part of mastering different theoretical perspective in sociology is learning their vocabulary.

Sociological imagination

A quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our particular situation in life and what is happening at a social level.

Four types of causal research:

Inaccurate observations, selective observations, sample bias and illogical reasoning.

Example of Inaccurate observations

Perspective of the world.

Example of selective observations

Ignoring data or findings that might change the conclusions or outcomes.

Example of sample bias

A faulty conclusion based on a limited or unrepresentative number cases.

Example of illogical reasoning

A form of reasoning or theorizing that is irrational or illogical and that does not hold up to scientific scrutiny.

Independent variable

Causes something to happen.

Dependent variable

Effects of the independent variable.

Example of Independent variable

Smoking.

Example of Dependent variable

Lung cancer.

Culture

Whole way of life. (values and beliefs)

Examples variations in culture across societies, within societies and in societies overtime:

Saudi Arabia, Nevada (prostitution), civil rights era and body rituals of the Nacermeria.

Two main types of culture:

Material and non-material.

Example of Material

Artwork, tools and machines.

Example of non-material

Beliefs and values.

Ethnocentrism

A superiority complex of the part of people who think one culture is superior then others.

Cultural relativism

Evaluating different cultures in terms relative to their history and society.

Values

Whats right and wrong for a particular group.

Norms

Rules or guideline regarding social behavior and based on values.

Main types of norms

Folkways and Mores.

Example of norms

Public courtesies and fidelity.

Positive Sanctions

(Folkways).

Negative Sanctions

(Mores).

Subculture

Groups within society that are differentiated by its distinct values and norms and lifestyles.

Culture wars

Clash over the values and norms that should be held.

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