PSY201 Chapters 1&2

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(T/F)Regarding the study of psychology, Psychology is a static field that is based to a large extent on common sense theories of behavior.

False

Professor Reed asked her introductory psych students to give an example of a covert behavior. What would be an example of a covert behavior?

Daydreaming about the coming weekend

Scientific observation is based on what?

Gathering of empirical evidence

An environmental psychologist helps redesign a college dorm to reduce feelings of crowding. The psychologist's work reflects which of psychology's goals?

Control

To assess your personality, a graphologist would want to do what?

Study your handwriting

Rose is using an astrology program on her computer. By using this pseudo-psychology computer program, she is trying to do what?

Explain how her life is influenced by the position of the stars and planets at her birth

According to your textbook, astrology...

Has repeatedly been shown to have no scientific validity

Systems, such as astrology and graphology, enjoy wide popularity because of their what?

Uncritical acceptance

When people read their horoscopes, they often believe these flattering descriptions of themselves, a tendency referred to as what?

Uncritical acceptance

Many tv viewers are impressed by "psychic mediums" who pretend to communicate with the deceased. Typically, the viewers will remember the "hits," or correct statements, while ignoring the "misses". This tendency is referred to as what?

The confirmation bias

The more general the prediction a fortune teller or palmist makes, the more believable are the results. This fact has been called the what?

Barnum effect

To be scientific, our observations must be...

Systematic

What is one of the six elements of he scientific method?

Publishing results

Kelly is writing a paper on conformity for her psychology class. In order to find the research articles she needs for the paper, the first step for her would be to get an overview of each of the articles that come up in her computer search. She should first read which part of each article?

Abstract

As Wundt studied vision, hearing, taste, touch, memory, and time perception in the first psychological lab, he helped make psychology a true science because he insisted on the use of measurement and what?

Systematic observation

Which theorist used introspection as a scientific technique for investigating consciousness?

Wilhelm Wundt

Edward Titchener is known for what?

Bringing structuralism to America

The ideas if which psychologist were most similar to those of Charles Darwin?

William James

Which school of thought in psychology emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior?

Behaviorism

Which theorist is associated with Gestalt psychology?

Mac Wertheimer

To solve problems in your life, a Gestalt psychologist might do what?

Suggest that you explore patterns in your behavior as a whole rather than analyzing each individual action

The founder of psychoanalytic psychology was who?

Sigmund Freud

Freud's legacy is evident in various psychodynamic theories, which emphasizes what?

Internal motives, conflicts, and unconscious forces

What is an approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals and stresses subjective factors, such as one's self-image, self-evaluation, and frame of reference?

Humanism

Who would be considered humanistic psychologists?

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow belong to which school of thought in psychology?

Humanistic psychology

What notable event in psychology occurred first?

First American PhD in psychology awarded

Psychologists who advocate the biopsychological view do what?

Attempt to explain behavior in terms of physical processes

(T/F) this psychological approach is matched correctly to its view of human nature: behavioristic>neutral, scientific, somewhat mechanistic view

True

In describing how a person arrives at a decision, a psychology professor explains to his class that "the mind is very much like a computer and that decision-making involves input, processing, storage, and output." This professor is emphasizing which view of behavior?

Cognitive

A psychologist whose viewpoint is psychodynamic believes what?

That behavior is directed by unconscious forces within one's personality

Which of the following perspectives in psychology takes an interactionist view of human nature and emphasizes that behavior is related to the environment within which a person is born, grows up, and lives from day to day?

Sociocultural

Dr. Dauphine has been studying consistent trends in how males and females have selected their mates throughout the long history of humankind. Dr. Dauphine is most likely what kind of psychologist.

Personality

If you are having a hard time housebreaking your young, healthy puppy to use the puppy pads, helpful info regarding how to reinforce your puppy would most likely come from what kind of psychologist?

Learning theorist

A psychologist working in which psychological speciality might explore how a person is able to recognize someone's voice over the phone by interpreting pitch?

Sensation and perception

Which speciality area in psychology would be most likely to study how people interact in group settings, including such areas as interpersonal attraction, friendships, and peer influences?

Social

Juanita is conducting research to find which light and sound intensity levels are best used in helping to calm drug-addicted newborns. Her research would be considered what?

Applied research

What kind of psychologists would most often engage in basic research?

Gender

Which if the following psychologists would most often engage in applied research?

Educational

Which psychologists would most likely engage in both applied and basic research?

Developmental

Amy holds a doctorate in psychology. She has recently been hired by a prominent teaching hospital to conduct research into finding the best therapeutic techniques for patients suffering from acute psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Amy is most likely a what?

Clinical psychologist

The APA professional code of ethics stresses what?

The personal freedom of the client

In an experiment, the people whose behavior is investigated are the...

Experimental subjects, participants, and are in the experimental and control groups

The dependent variable is the one that is...

Revealed by measures of performance

Suppose you want to find out if using cell phones while driving a car affects the likelihood of having an accident. Driving ability as defined by the scores achieved on a test of driving ability would be which variable?

Dependent

In an experiment to determine if meditation increases mental concentration, the group of subjects who would be required to meditate would be which group?

Experimental group

A teacher wants to find out if a new problem-based history program will increase history achievement scores. The students who will not be exposed to this problem-based history program but will be taught the specific material in the traditional manner are part of which group?

Control

In a carefully controlled experiment, the only possible cause for any effect noted in the dependent variable is the what?

Independent variable

In research reports, a statement that "the results of the experiment were statistically significant" means that the difference must be large enough so that it would occur by chance in ____ experiments out of 100.

Less than 5

Psychologists who want to study behavior as it unfolds in natural settings use a technique called what?

Naturalistic observation

One way to reduce the effects the presence of the observer on the behavior of the observed is to...

Conceal the observer or use hidden camera recorders

Helen ties a frilly blue bow around the neck of her husband's dog, Bruiser. When her husband sees Bruiser trying to take the bow off, he explains to his wife that Bruiser is embarrassed to be seen wearing "the frilly little bow." Her husband's comment illustrates what?

Anthropomorphic effect

A researcher studying sleep deprivation finds that as the amount of sleep decreases, there is a proportional decrease in one's immune system. This illustrates a _______ correlation.

Negative

One of the advantages of the correlational method is what?

It allows prediction

The Gallup and Harris Polls, which are reports that contains the responses of several hundred people to questions such as how good a job is the president doing with foreign affairs, are both examples of the use of the what?

Survey method

In survey studies, answers to questions regarding sex, drinking, drug use, income, and church attendance tend to be less than truthful, indicating a distinct what?

Courtesy bias

If students who completed a study skills course raised their grade point averages, can we conclude that the course caused their improvement?

No, there was no control group

A theatre reported that their highest beverage sales this year occurred during showings of The Great African Desert. However, we cannot conclude that the film affected beverage consumption because of what?

There was no control group

A psychologist visiting a classroom concludes that one of the children is depressed because the child is quiet and unresponsive. Actually, the child has the flu. What error has been made?

Failure to distinguish inference from observation

You meet a young lady who giggles after every sentence she says. You conclude that she is a very happy person, but you later find out that her giggling is due to nervousness in meeting new people. This story suggests that it is important to distinguish between...

Observation and inference

The electrically charged molecules that are involved in a nerve impulse are called what?

Ions

If the electrical charge of the neuron changes to about a minus 50 millivolts, the neuron will reach its ________ for firing.

Threshold

During an action potential, the axon's ion channels pop open to allow which ions to rush into the axon?

Sodium

What statement best describes an action potential?

The action potential is an all-or-nothing event

After a nerve impulse occurs, the neuron is temporarily less likely to fire because of what?

Potassium ions flow out of the neuron while the ion channels are open

Myelin covers which part of the neuron?

Axon

When a car suddenly brakes in front of you, what happens in the myelin?

Small gaps in the myelin speed reaction time

The purpose of the myelin that surrounds the axon is to...

Speed the transmission of an impulse down the axon

Communication between neurons would be considered a chemical change involving what?

Neurotransmitters

When a nerve impulse reaches the end of the axon, the tiny sacs that store the neurotransmitters move to the surface and release these chemicals. These ting sacs that store the neurotransmitters are called what?

Synaptic vesicles

How many different transmitter chemicals are found in the brain?

More than 100

What is an excitatory neurotransmitter that participates in movement, autonomic function, learning, and memory with a deficiency in this neurotransmitter playing a role in Alzheimer's disease?

Acetylcholine

An excess of dopamine has been linked with the development of what?

Schizophrenia

When curare blocks the action of acetylcholine it does what?

Prevents muscle activation, causing paralysis

The paralyzingly effect of curare is caused by its ability to do what?

Block the action of acetylcholine at neuron-muscle synapses

Ricardo was given curare and suffered paralysis. By attaching to receptor sites on his muscles, curare competes with what?

Acetylcholine

The somatic system carries messages to and from the what?

Sense organs and skeletal muscles

After successfully running from the grizzly that was running directly toward you, you pause to catch your breath and collect your wits. The physical symptoms you now experience are controlled by what system?

Parasympathetic nervous system

Your instructor had just decided not to give the pop test that was announced at the beginning of class. The class breathes a collective sigh of relief. This relief is best explained by which nervous system?

Parasympathetic

(T/F)Regarding the repair of the central nervous system, this statement is false: Although animal studies have been conducted, no human trials involving the repair of damaged spinal cords have been undertaken yet.

True

Bobby suffered a stroke that damaged his brain, causing partial paralysis in his left arm. To increase the rate of neurogenesis in the damaged part of his brain and speed his recovery, Bobby's good right arm is immobilized, which forces his impaired left arm to become more active. This approach is know as what?

Constraint-induced movement

In constraint induced movement therapy, a person's good arm is immobilized, which forced the impaired arm to become more active and to increase which of the following processes in the damaged part of his brain?

Neurogenesis

After Phineas Gage's accident in which a metal rod entered his brain, the doctor kept notes on his behavior, used tests to measure various responses, and interviewed Phineas and those who knew him. His brain injury was studied using what?

Clinical case study

Jacob suspects he may have had a stroke because he is having some difficulty in controlling his right hand. This behavioral evidence of possible brain damage is called what?

A neurological soft sign

The removal of brain tissue occurs with both deep lesioning and with surgical...

Ablation

An extremely thin glass tube filled with its tip being small enough to detect the electrical activity of a single neuron would be referred to as what?

A microelectrode

Martina has what appears to be a seizure. To verify whether Martina has epilepsy, her doctor affixes small disk-shaped mental plates to Martina's scalp in order to obtain a recording of her brain waves. What technique is being utilized?

EEG

A PET scan records the amount of which radioactive substance used by brain cells?

Glucose

Research using PET scans of human brains indicates what?

All parts of the brain are active during waking hours

Psychiatrist Daniel Langleben and his colleagues have used fMRI technology to tell if a person is lying. When a person was lying, what happens?

Front of the brain became more active

(T/F)Regarding brain size and abilities, this statement is false: the brain of lower animals is twisted and folded, while the human brain is smooth.

True

The cerebral correct is divided into two...

Hemispheres

Compared to the human brain, the cortex of the lower animals is...

Small and smooth

If a triangle is flashed to a split brain patient's right brain, he will be able to...

Identify the triangle by tough with his right hand

In most people, the left hemisphere of the brain is in charge of what?

Language

After having a stroke, Rich can speak and understand what has been said to him, but he now has great difficulty understanding the context in which something is said. Rich also misunderstands sarcasm and jokes. Rich has most likely suffered a stroke to...

The right hemisphere

What statement best describes how the right hemisphere deals with info?

It explore the overall pattern and general connections

The activation of mirror neurons may play a role in a person's ability to identify with another person's experiences and feelings, a skill known as human...

Empathy

Aphasia would be described as a...

Language disturbance resulting from brain damage

Which part of the brain generates our sense of self, including our awareness of our current emotional state?

Prefrontal cortex

Bodily sensations such as touch, temperature, and pressure register in the ______ lobes.

Pariental

Regarding sensitivity, more of the primary somatosensory cortex is devoted to the...

Lips

(T/F)This combo is correct: temporal lobe~primary auditory area.

True

Wernicke's are is located in the ________ lobe.

Left temporal

Damage to Wernicke's area would lead to what?

Fluent aphasia

Marjorie is still able to speak, although she has great difficulty comprehending language. Damage was most likely to what part of her brain?

Wernicke's area

The evolutionary specialization of an area of the occipital lobe for facial recognition may be due to this skill being important in what?

Socialization

As the spinal cord joins the brain, it widens into what?

The brainstem

Severe damage to what part of the brain would most likely result in death?

Medulla

A karate chop to an area at the top of the neck could stop a person's heart and breathing by damaging the what?

Medulla

A medical student destroys part of a rat's brain so that it later develops a tremendous appetite continues to eat long after it has acquired ample nutrition. What part of the brain has been damaged?

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and parts of the thalamus make up the _______ system.

Reticular activating

Damage to which part of the limbic system would most likely impair memory?

Hippocampus

(T/F)Hormones secreted during times of high emotion tend to decrease memory formation.

False

People with hypopituitary dwarfism have what?

Perfectly proportioned body and limbs, but are tiny

Which gland located in the neck regulates the rate at which energy is produced and expended in the body?

Thyroid

Terri shows inactivity, sleepiness, slowness, and has gained weight. A problem was found in her endocrine system. She most likely has what?

An under active thyroid gland

Which hormone also functions as a neurotransmitter in the brain, tends to arouse the body, and is linked with anger?

Norepinephrine

The adrenal medulla secretes what?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are associated with what?

Salt balance and the body's ability to resist stress

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