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surface tension

a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size

equilibrium

dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system

condensation

the process by which a gas changes to a liquid

equilibrium vapor pressure

pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium; with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature

volatile

liquids that evaporated readily

sublimation

change of state from a solid directly to a gas

deposition

change of state from a gas directly to a solid

phase diagram

a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist

triple point

indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium

properties of water

boils at 100 degress Celsius, low density, floats, polar compound with bent shape, high molar heat of fusion, high molar heat of vaporization, expands when freezes

solute

substance dissolved in a solution

solvent

dissolving medium in a solution

solution

homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase

saturation

the amount of dissolved solute

dissociation

separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves

colligative properties

properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity

molarity

the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution

molality

the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

weak electrolyte

any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly

strong electrolyte

any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well

concentrated

relatively large amount of solute in a solvent

diluted

relatively small amount of solute in a solvent

Avogadro's Law

equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules

Kinetic-Molecular Theory

particles of matter are always in motion

Boyle's Law

relates pressure and volume of a gas V1P1=V2P2

Charles's Law

relates the temperature and volume of a gas V1/T1=V2/T2

Gay-Lussac's Law

pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant P1/T1=P2/T2

combined gas law

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2

Dalton's law of partial pressure

in the absence of a chemical reaction the pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the individual pressures of each gas alone Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+...

partial pressure

pressure of each gas in a mixture

diffusion

spontaneous mixing of particles of two substances (gases) cased by their random motion

effusion

process by which gases pass thorugh a tiny opening

barometer

measures pressure

measure of pressure

torr, kPa, atm

standard molar volume of a gas

volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP

ideal gas law

PV=nRT where P is pressure, V is volume, n is the # of moles, R is the constant, and T is the temperature

R

ideal gas constant

Molar mass

M=mRT/PV where M is the molar mass, m is the mass of gas, R is the constant, T is the temperature, P is the pressure, and V is the volume

Density

D=MP/RT where D is the density, M is the molar mass, P is the pressure, R is the constant, and T is the temperature

Arrhenius

acids produce higher concentration of H+ or H3O+; bases produce higher concentration of OH-

Bronsted-Lowry

acids donate proton; bases accept proton

amphoteric

any species that can react as either an acid or base

acid

compounds with H+ or H3O+ ions

base

compounds with OH- ions

conjugate acid

species that is formed with a base gains a proton

conjugate base

species that is formed with an acid loses a proton

monoprotic

donates one proton

polyprotic

donates more than one proton

endpoint

the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color

equivalence point

the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts

Lewis

acids accept electron pair and bases donate election pair

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