Psychology: Chapter 1 Pt. 2

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Amy has been hired by a prominent teaching hospital to conduct research into finding the best therapeutic techniques for patients suffering from acute psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Amy is most likely a

clinical psychologist

The APA professional code of ethics stresses

the personal freedom of the client

In an experiment, the people whose behavior is investigated

are called the experimental subjects

The dependent variable is the one that is

revealed by measures of performance

Suppose you want to find out if using cell phones while driving a car affects the likelihood of having an accident. Driving ability as defined by the scores achieved on a test of driving ability would be the ______ group.

dependent

In an experiment to determine if meditation increases mental concentration, the group of subjects who would be required to meditate would be the _______ group.

experimental

A teacher wants to find out if a new problem-based history program will increase history achievement scores. Students who will NOT be exposed to this problem-based history program but will be taught the specific material in the traditional manner are part of which group?

control

In a carefully controlled experiment, the only possibly cause for any effect noted in the dependent variable is the

independent variable

In research reports, a statement that " the results of the ecperiment were statistically significant" means that the difference must be large enough so that it would occur by chance in _______ experiments out of 100.

less than five

Psychologists who want to study behavior as it unfolds in natural settings use technique called

the clinical method

One way to reduce the effects of the presence of the observer on the behavior of the observed is to

conceal the observer or use hidden camera recorders

Helen ties a frilly blue bow around the neck of her husband's bulldog, Bruiser. When her husband sees Bruiser trying to take the bow off, he explains to his wife that Bruiser is embarrassed to be seen wearing " the frilly little bow." Her husband's comment illustrates

anthropomorphic error

A researcher studying sleep deprivation finds that as the amount of sleep decreasesm there is a proportional decrease in one's immune system. This illustrates a ________ correlation.

positive

One of the advantages of the correlational method is that

it allows prediction

The Gallup and Harris Polls, which are reports that contains the responses of several hundred people to questions such as how good a job is the president doing with foreign affairs, are both examples of the use of the

survey method

In surveyr studies, answers to questions regarding sex, drinking, drug use, income, and church attendance tend to be less than truthful, indicating a distinct

courtesy bias

If students who completed a study skills course raised their grade point averages, can we conclude that the course caused their improvement?

No, becaue there was no control group

A theater reported that their highest beverage sales this year occured during showings of The Great African Desert. However, we cannot conclude that the film affected beverage consumption because

there was no control group

A psychologist visiting a classroom concludes that one of the childrn is depressed becaues the child is quiet and unresponsive. Actually, the child has the flu. The psychologist has made what error?

failure to distinguish inference from observation

You meet a young lady who giggles after every sentence she says. You conclude that she is a very happy person, but you later find that her giggling ids due to nervousness in meeting new people. This story suggests that it is important to distinguish between

observation and inference

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