a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
Learning that takes place when a person observes and imitates another's behavior
Learning that occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events.
learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and aquires the capacity to eilicit a similar response.
unconditional stimulus (US)
A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
An unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned response (CR)
The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus pairing.
The initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired.
generalization (classical conditioning)
The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.
discrimination (classical conditioning)
The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others.
extinction (classical conditioning)
The weakening conditioned repsonse when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.
The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning.
The recovery of the conditioned response when the organism is placed in a novel context.
A classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditoned response.
A method of therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety producing situations.
A form of treatment thant consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus.
operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning)
A form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior changes the probability of the behavior's occurence
law of effect
Thorndike's law stating that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
rewarding approximations of a desired behavior
The process by which a rewarding stimulus or event (a reinforcer) following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.
The presentation of a rewarding stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
The removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.
A reinforcer that is innately satisfying: one that does not take any learning on the organism's part to make it pleasurable.
A refinforcer that acquires its positive value through an organism's experience; a secondary reinforcer is a learned or conditioned reinforcer.
schedules of reinforcement
Specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
generalization (operant conditioning)
Performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation.
discrimination (operant conditioning)
Responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.
extinction (operant conditioning)
Decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforced.
The amount of time that must pass before a behavior is rewarded
Reinforced a behavior after a set number of behaviors.
A timetable in which behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis.
Reinforces the first behavior after a variable amount of time has elapsed.
A consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur
The presentation of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior.
The removal of a positive stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior.
applied behavior analysis (behavior modification)
The use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.
(implicit learning) Unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
A form of problem solving in the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problem's solution
The tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning.
The species-specific biological predisposition to learn certain ways but not others.
The retention of information or experience over time as the result of three key processes: encoding, storage and retrieval.
The first step in memory; the process by which information gets into memory storage
levels of processing
A continuum of memory processing from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory
The number of different connections that are made around a stimulus at a given level of memory encoding.
The retention of information over time and how this information is represented in memory
Theory stating that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
Memory system that involves holding information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses.
Refers to the auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds.
Refers to visual sensory memory, which is retained only for about 1/4 of a second.
short term memory
Limited capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer.
The number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentaion of them.
Grouping or "packing" information that exceeds the 7 + or - 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units
The conscious repetition of information
A three part system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks; a kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions, and solve problems.
specialized to briefly store speech based information about the sounds of language.
visuospatial working memory
stores visual and spatial information, including visual imagery
Integrates information not only from the phonologiocal loop, and visuospatial working memory, but also from longterm memory.
long term memory
A realatively permanet type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time.
explicit (declarative memory)
The conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.
The retention of information about where, when, and what of life's happenings- that is how individuals remember life's episodes.
A person's knowledge about the world
implicit memory (nondeclarative memory)
Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience
A type of implicit memory process that involves memory for skills.
The activation of information that people alreadt have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.
A preexisting mental concept of framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. Schemas prior to encounters with the environment influence the way we encode, make inferences about, and retrieve information.
A schema for an event, often containing information about physical features, people, and typical occurences.
connectionism (parallell distributed processing) PDP
The theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons, several of which may work together to process a single memory
explicit memory, priming
The memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage.
serial position effect
The tendency to recall items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.
Refers to better recall the items at the beginning of a list
Refers to to better recall items at the end of a list.
A memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information as on essay tests.
A memory task in which an individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items, as on multiple choice tests.
encoding specificity principle
Information present at time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue.
context dependent memory
An attempt to recall information in the context to which is was learned.
A special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his or her life experiences.
The effect that adults remember more events from the second and third decades or life than from other decades
time life periods
The most abstract level such as an event from high school
The middle level such as a trip you took after high school
event specific knowledge
The most concrete, like the exhilarating experience you had the first time you jet skied.
The memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.
A defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it and forgets the act of forgetting.
Forgetting that occurs when something is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable
The theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember.
Situation in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier.
Theory stating that when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates; suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting.
Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material that was learned later
tip-of-the tongue phenomenon (TOT)
A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory.
Remembering information about doing something in the future; inlcudes memory for intentions.
Remembering information from the past
The loss of memory
Memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events
A memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events.